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Serval (Leptailurus serval) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Allen, G.M. 1939. A checklist of African mammals. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 83:1-763.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Bowland, J.M. 1990. Servals: wetland cats. Endangered Wildlife 1:4-5.

Bowland, J.M. 1990. Diet, home range and movement patterns of serval on farmland in Natal. Unpublished
M.Sc. Thesis. Univ. Natal, Pietermaritzburg.

Bowland, J.M. and M.R. Perrin 1993. Diet of serval Felis serval in a highland region of Natal. South African Journal of Zoology 28:132-135.

Breitbeil, B. 2002. Serval: Leptailurus serval. North American Regional Studbook, First Edition.

Breitenmoser-Wursten, C. P. Henschel E. Sogbohossou, E. 2008. Leptialurus serval. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4 <> downloaded 23 November 2010.

Brown, R.W. 1956. Composition of scientific words. Published by the author. 882 p.

Concise Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins, 1986. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Corbet, G.B. and J.E. Hill 1991. A world list of mammalian species. British Museum (Natural History) and Cornell University Press. London and Ithaca.

Estes, R. 1992. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press.

Geertsema, A. A. 1976. Impressions and observations of serval behavior in Tanzania, East Africa. Mammalia 40:13-19.

Geertsema, A.A. 1981. The servals of Gorigor. Wildlife News 16(3):4-8.

Geertsema, A.A. 1985. Aspects of the ecology of the serval Leptailurus serval in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. Netherlands Journal of Zool. 35(4):527-610.

Geertsema, A.A. 1991. The servals of Gorigor. Natural History. Feb. 1991. pp. 52-61.

Henley, S. 1997. On the proposed reintroduction of serval (Felis serval) into the Great Fish River Reserve, Eastern Cape. University of Port Elizabeth. 

Harper, D. 2010. Serval. Online Etymology Dictionary.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) 2010. Leptailurus serval (Schreber, 1776).

IUCN Cat Specialist Group. 2019. Serval [Internet]. Switzerland: IUCN/SCC Cat Specialist Group; [accessed 2019 Feb 26].

Johnson, W. E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W. J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. and O'Brien, S. J. 2006. The late miocene radiation of modern felidae: A genetic assessment. Science 311: 73-77.

Juan-Sallés, C. M. Domingo, P. Herráez, A. Fernández, J. Segalés, J. Fernández 1998. Feline infectious peritionitis in servals (Felis serval). The Veterinary Record, Nov. 7 1998.

Kingdon, J. 1977. East African mammals: An atlas of evolution in Africa, Vol. 3(A). Carnivores. Academic Press, New York.

Kitchener, A.C., B.V. Valkenburgh, N. Yamaguchi 2010. Felid form and function. In: Macdonald & Loveridge (Eds.) Biology and conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford University Press. pp. 83-106.

Kitchener AC, Breitemoser-Würsten C, Eizirik E, Gentry A, Werdelin L, Wilting A, Wamaguchi N, Abramov A, Christiansen P, Driscoll C, et al. 2017. A revised taxonomy of the Felidae. The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group. Cat News Spec. Issue 11, 80 pages.

Leyhausen, P. 1979. Cat behavior: The predatory and social behavior of domestic and wild cats. New York: Garland STPM Press.

Leyhausen, P. 1990 Cats. In: Parker, S. (Ed.) Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 3. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.

Macdonald, D.W. , A. Mosser, J.L. Gittleman 2010. Felid Society. In: Macdonald, D.W. & Loveridge (Eds.) Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford University Press. pp. 125-160.

Macdonald, D.W., A. Loveridge and K. Nowell 2010. Dramatis personae: an introduction to the wild felids. In: Macdonald, D.W. & Loveridge (Eds.) Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford University Press. pp. 3-58.

Macdonald, D.W. and A.J. Loveridge 2010. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford University Press.

Mellen, J.D. Zoo Standards for Keeping Small Felids in Captivity. AZA website; and Felid TAG website

Munson, L, K. Terio, M-P Ryser-Degiorgis, E. Lane, F. Courchamp 2010. Wild felid diseases: conservation implications and management strategies. In: Macdonald & A.J. Loveridge (Eds.) Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford University Press. pp. 237-259.

Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. 1996. Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

O'Brien, S.J. and W.E. Johnson 2005. Big cat genomics. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 6:407-429.

O'Brien, S. J. and Johnson, W. E. 2007. The evolution of cats. Scientific American July: 68-75.

Poonacha, K.B. 1997. Naturally occurring Tyzzer's disease in a serval (Felis capenis). Journal Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation.9(1): 82-84. DOI: 10.1177/104063879700900116

Skinner, J.D. and C.T. Chimimba 2005. (Eds.) The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion: Carnivora, Genus Leptailurus. Cambridge University Press. pp. 408-412.

Skinner, J.D. and R.H. Smithers 1990. The mammals of the southern African subregion, 2nd edition. University of Pretoria Press, Pretoria.

Smithers, R.H. 1978. The serval, Felis serval Schreber, 1776. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 8:29-37.

Smithers, R.H. 1983. The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.

Stuart, C.T. 1985. The status of two endangered carnivores occurring in the Cape Province, South Africa, Felis serval and Lutra maculicollis. Biological Conservation 32:375-382.

Sunquist, M. and F. Sunquist 2002. Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press. Chicago and London. pp. 143-151.

Sunquist, M. and F. Sunquist 2009. Family Felidae (Cats). Genus Leptailurus. In: Wilson, D.E. and R.A. Mittermeier 2009. (Eds.) Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 1. Carnivores, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. pp.141-142.

Sunquist, M., Sunquist, M.E. Sunquist, F. 2002. Wild Cats of the World, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Thiel C. 2015. Serval Leptailurus serval. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019.1; e.T11638A50654625 [species assessed 2014 Apr 20; page accessed 2019 Jun 18]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T11638A50654625.en.

Tonkin, B.A. 1972. Notes on Longevity in Three Species of Felid. INTERNATIONAL ZOO YEARBOOK 12:181.

Turner, A. 1990. The evolution of the guild of larger terrestrial carnivores during the Plio-Pleistocene in Africa. Geobios 23:349-368.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: Leptailurus serval [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Oct 22].

Van Aarde, R.J. and R.D. Skinner 1986. Pattern of space use by relocated servals Felis serval. African Journal of Ecology 24:97-101.

Wackernagel, H. 1968 A note on breeding the serval cat at Basle Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 8:46-47.

Werdelin, L., N. Yamaguchi, W.E. Johnson, S.J. O'Brien 2010. Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae). In: Macdonald & A.J. Loveridge (Eds.) Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford University Press. pp. 59-82.

Wilson, D.E. and D.M. Reeder 2005. Mammal Species of the World: Carnivora. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. pp. 532-540.

Wilson, D.E. and R.A. Mittermeier 2009. (Eds.) Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 1. Carnivores, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

York, W. 1973. A study of serval melanism in the Aberdares Mts., Kenya and some general behavioural information. In : The World's Cats. Vol. 1 Winston Oregon: World Wildlife Safari.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2019. [accessed 2019 Oct 22].

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