Leopard (Panthera pardus) Fact Sheet, 2014
Image Credit: San Diego Zoo Global. All Rights Reserved.
Describer (Date): Linnaeus (1758)
Species: Panthera pardus
Subspecies: Panthera pardus delacourii Subspecies: Panthera pardus fusca Subspecies: Panthera pardus japonensis Subspecies: Panthera pardus kotiya Subspecies: Panthera pardus melas Subspecies: Panthera pardus nimr Subspecies: Panthera pardus orientalis Subspecies: Panthera pardus pardus Subspecies: Panthera pardus saxicolor
Male: 37-90 kg (82-198 lb)
Female: 28-60 kg (62-132 lb)
Body Length: 910-1,910 mm (3.0-6.3 ft)
Tail Length: 580-1,100 mm (2.0-3.6 ft)
Pelage: Coats variable though all with bodies spotted with rosettes, small black spots surrounding a central spot slightly darker than background color; background pale cream, buff-gray, orangish, tawny-brown, or dark rufous
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Widest geographic range of wild cats; over 70 countries across Africa and Eurasia; regionally extinct in many places with small population size in several subspecies (P.p. kotiya, melas, nimr, orientalis, and saxicolor)
|Locomotion: Walk while traveling, tail curved down with end turned slightly upward; body low, crouch when crossing open areas; climb well, able to carry loads heavier than own body weight up a tree; strong swimmers; capable of springing vertically
Activity Cycle: Nocturnal most often; commonly hunt and travel at night; rest on the ground under cover or in trees; human activity may influence patterns of activity
Social Groups: Solitary most often, except when mating or raising cubs
Diet: Described by many as a catholic diet, take a wide variety of prey items; >90 spp. in sub-Saharan Africa alone; typically large to medium sized ungulates; eat primates commonly in some African regions; often scavenge
Predators: Lions, spotted hyena, African wild dog, African rock python, Nile crocodile, tiger, gray wolf, dhole; primarily target cubs
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
|Sexual Maturity: 24-28 months for both males and females, reproduction uncommon prior to 33-36 months
Gestation: 90-106 days; interbirth interval 14-39 months
Litter Size: Range 1-3; 2 typical; maximum litter of 6 recorded for a captive female
Birth weight: 430-1000 g (15-35 oz), in captivity
Age at Weaning: c. 100 days
Longevity: 5-8 years is typical, not uncommonly individuals live longer; a wild South African female documented living nearly 19 years; most mortality occurs within the first year of life
Feature Facts: Broadest global distribution of all cat species; found across much of Africa, Arabia, India, east and southeast Asia. Large, roaring cats.
About This Fact Sheet
© 2014 San Diego Zoo Global. Updated October 2014.
How to cite: Leopard (Panthera pardus) Fact Sheet, 2014. c2014. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/leopard.
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2014 Sep 15)
Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org.