Leopard (Panthera pardus)
Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.
Describer (Date): Linnaeus (1758)
Species: Panthera pardus
Subspecies: Panthera pardus delacourii
Male: 37-90 kg (82-198 lb)
Female: 28-60 kg (62-132 lb)
Body Length: 910-1,910 mm (3.0-6.3 ft)
Tail Length: 580-1,100 mm (1.9-3.6 ft)
Pelage: Coats variable though all with bodies spotted with rosettes, small black spots surrounding a central spot slightly darker than background color; background pale cream, buff-gray, orangish, tawny-brown, or dark rufous
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Widest geographic range of wild cats; over 70 countries across Africa and Eurasia; regionally extinct in many places with small population size in several subspecies (P.p. kotiya, melas, nimr, orientalis, and saxicolor)
|Locomotion: Walk while traveling, tail curved down with end turned slightly upward; body low, crouch when crossing open areas; climb well, able to carry loads heavier than own body weight up a tree; strong swimmers; capable of springing vertically
Activity Cycle: Nocturnal most often; commonly hunt and travel at night; rest on the ground under cover or in trees; human activity may influence patterns of activity
Social Groups: Solitary most often, except when mating or raising cubs
Diet: Described by many as a catholic diet, take a wide variety of prey items; >90 spp. in sub-Saharan Africa alone; typically large to medium sized ungulates; eat primates commonly in some African regions; often scavenge
Predators: Lions, spotted hyena, African wild dog, African rock python, Nile crocodile, tiger, gray wolf, dhole; primarily target cubs
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
|Sexual Maturity: 24-28 months for both males and females, reproduction uncommon prior to 33-36 months
Gestation: 90-106 days; interbirth interval 14-39 months
Litter Size: Range 1-3; 2 typical; maximum litter of 6 recorded for a captive female
Birth weight: 430-1000 g (15-35 oz), in captivity
Age at Weaning: c. 100 days
Longevity: 5-8 years is typical, not uncommonly individuals live longer; a wild South African female documented living nearly 19 years; most mortality occurs within the first year of life
© 2014-2018 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. Minor updates October 2014. IUCN Status updated 2018 Jul 04. Amur leopard and North China leopard population estimates updated July 2018.
How to cite: Leopard (Panthera pardus) Fact Sheet. c2014-2018. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ leopard.
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2014 Sep 15)
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