Tiger (Panthera tigris)
Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.
Describer: Linnaeus (1758)
Family: Felidae - all modern cats
Species: Panthera tigris - tiger
Subspecies: P. t. altaica - Amur tiger (a.k.a. Siberian tiger)
Males: 100-261 kg (200-575 lb); up to 325 kg (716 lb) in zoos
Females: 75-177 kg (170-390 lb)
Head-Body Length :
Males: 189-300 cm (6.20-10 ft)
Females: 146-177 cm (4.79-5.81 ft)
Shoulder Height: 80-100 cm (3 ft)
Tail Length: 72-109 cm (2.4-3.58 ft)
Pelage: Black or brown stripes on a red-orange to golden yellow background.
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Habitat: Extremely varied; from tropical rain forest to temperate conifer-deciduous forest.
All living/extant subspecies Endangered or Critically Endangered; see IUCN Status.
CITES Status: All species listed on Appendix I.
|Activity Cycle: Active day and night when not hunted by humans.
Social Groups: Solitary, except for females with cubs. Mating pair forms a temporary association.
Territoriality: Females hold small, mutually exclusive territories. Males hold territories which include as many female ranges as possible; male ranges do not typically overlap.
Communication: Vocalize and scent mark. Roar, purr, grunt, miaow, woof, growl, and hiss. Also produce a sambar, deer-like call. Scent-mark throughout territorial range. Visual signals used in close proximity; posture, facial expression signal intention.
Diet: Consume large and medium deer, wild pigs, antelope, water buffalo, and wild cattle.
Hunting Behavior: Hunt alone, solitary. Stalk-and-ambush prey. Kill by bite to back of neck or strangulation with a throat bite.
Threats: Humans are the only serious predator. Endangered due to hunting, poaching, and trade in tiger parts. Male tigers will rarely kill cubs. Injury from porcupine quills common. Shortage of prey limits available habitat. Habitat loss/fragmentation critical.
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
Sexual Maturity: Males: 4-5 years; females: 3-4 years.
Gestation: Average 103-106 days; range 97-110
Longevity: Up to 26 years in managed care and in the wild
© 2015-2022 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. Population estimates updated Jul 2022. Updated August 2013. Minor updates to Conservation and Managed Care 2017. Subspecies taxonomy updated Oct 2018. Population estimates updated Dec 2019.
How to cite: Tiger (Panthera tigris) Fact Sheet. c2009-2022. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/tiger.
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Jan 15)
Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org.