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Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Fact Sheet: Summary

Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Fact Sheet

an Asian Elephant

Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.


Taxonomy Physical Characteristics

Order: Proboscidea

Family: Elephantidae

Subfamily: Elephantinae

Subtribe: Elephantina

Genus: Elephas

Species: Elephas maximus

Subspecies: E.m. maximus, E.m. Indicus,
E.m. sumatranus, E.m. borneensis

Body Weight:
2,000-5,500 kg. (4,400-12,000 lbs)

Shoulder Height:
Male: 3.2 m. (10.5 ft.);
Female: 2.24 m. (7.3 ft.)

Trunk: One "finger" at the end

Tusks: Females tuskless; percentages of tuskless males in populations vary widely (0 to 100%)

Distribution & Status Behavior & Ecology

Range: Indian subcontinent, Continental Southeast Asia, and Asian islands

Habitat: Tropical & subtropical moist broadleaf forests & dry broadleaf & dry scrub forests

IUCN Status: Endangered (2008 assessment) (Choudhury et al. 2008)

CITES Appendix: Appendix I (UNEP 2019)

Population in Wild: Best estimate is approximately 46,000 individuals.

Activity Cycle: Diurnal and nocturnal; feeding & traveling to food 70-90% of the time

Social Groups: Matriarchal herds of 8-12; males solitary

Diet: Herbivorious

Predators: Humans

Reproduction & Development Species Highlights

Age of Sexual Maturity:
Males: 14 to 15 years
Females: 15 to 16

Gestation: 22 months

Litter Size: Usually 1; twins possible

Birth weight: 75-115 kg (165-254 lbs)

Age at Weaning: 18 mos.-3+ years.

wild: 60-70

managed care: 80

Feature Facts:

  • Considered holy in Hindu and Buddhist cultures
  • Have ability to hear very low frequency sounds from far-off environment, including distant thunderstorms and hoofbeats of running animals.
  • Highly social animals with extremely complex behaviors, including, empathy, problem solving and communication
  • Gestation is longest of any mammal, 18-22 months, and cows can calve after 50 years of age
  • India has over 50% of remaining wild populations
  • Current threats include poaching, habitat loss/fragmentation, and conflict with humans
  • First North American elephant born in managed care in Philadelphia, PA in 1880.

About This Fact Sheet

© 2008-2019 San Diego Zoo Global. Updated 2019. Global population estimate updated Nov 2018.

How to cite: Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Fact Sheet. c2008-2019. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. asianelephant.
(Note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Jan 15)

Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to

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