Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)
Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.
Species: Elephas maximus
Subspecies: E.m. maximus, E.m. indicus,
Trunk: One "finger" at the end
Tusks: Females tuskless; percentages of tuskless males in populations vary widely (0 to 100%)
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Indian subcontinent, Continental Southeast Asia, and Asian islands
Habitat: Tropical & subtropical moist broadleaf forests & dry broadleaf & dry scrub forests
IUCN Status: Endangered (2008 assessment) (Choudhury et al. 2008)
CITES Appendix: Appendix I (UNEP 2019)
Population in Wild: approximately 46,000 individuals.
Activity Cycle: Diurnal and nocturnal; feeding & traveling to food 70-90% of the time
Social Groups: Matriarchal herds of 8-12; males solitary
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
Age of Sexual Maturity:
Gestation: 22 months
Litter Size: Usually 1; twins possible
Birth weight: 75-115 kg (165-254 lbs)
Age at Weaning: 18 mo.-3+ years.
Typical Life Expectancy:
© 2008-2019 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. Updated 2019. Global population estimate updated Nov 2018.
How to cite: Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Fact Sheet. c2008-2019. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ asianelephant.
(Note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Jan 15)
Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org.