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Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Alter S. 2004. Elephas Maximus: A Portrait of the Indian Elephant. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, Inc.

Allen WR. 2006. Review. Ovulation, pregnancy, placentation and husbandry in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Philsophical Transactions of the Royal Sopciety of London. Series B Biological Sciences 361(1469)821-34

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Blake, S. and S. Hedges. 2004. Sinking the Flagship: the Case of Forest Elephants in Asia and Africa In: Conservation Biology 18(5): 1191-1202

Choudhury, A., Lahiri Choudhury, D.K., Desai, A., Duckworth, J.W., Easa, P.S., Johnsingh, A.J.T., Fernando, P., Hedges, S., Gunawardena, M., Kurt, F., Karanth, U., Lister, A., Menon, V., Riddle, H., Rübel, A. & Wikramanayake, E. 2008. Elephas maximus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2011.2; e.T7140A12828813 [species assessed 2008 Jun 30; page accessed 2018 Nov 06]

Csuti, B. 2006. Elephants in Captivity. In: Biology, Medicine and Surgery of Elephants. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing

Daniel, J. 1992. The Asian Elephant Population Today. In:  J. Shoshani, ed. Elephants; Majestic Creatures of the Wild. Emmaus, PN: Rodale Press.

Eltringham, S.K. 1982. Elephants. Dorset:Blanford Press.

Eltringham, S.K., ed. 1991. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Elephants. New York: Crescent Books. p. 40.

Eltringhand, S.K. 1992. Longevity and Mortality. In: Biology, Medicine and Surgery of Elephants, p 99-105. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing

Fernando, P, R. Lande 2000. Molecular Genetic and Behavioral Analysis of Social Organization in the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus). Behavial Ecology and Sociobiology 48(1): 84-9

Fernando P,  Vidya TNC, Payne J,  Stuewe M,  Davison G. et al. 2003.  DNA analysis indicates that Asian elephants are native to Borneo and are therefore a high priority for conservation. PloS Biology, Volume 1 (1):110-115.

Fleischer RC, Perry EA, Muralidharan K, Stevens EE, Wemmer CM. 2001. Phylogeography of the asian elephant (Elephas maximus) based on mitochondrial DNA. Evolution 55(9):1882-1892.

Fowler ME,. Mikota SK. 2006. Biology, Medicine and Surgery of Elephants. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing.

Gheerbrant E. 2009. Paleocene emergence of elephant relatives and the rapid radiation of African ungulates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. PNAS published online before print June 22, 2009 doi:10.1073/pnas.0900251106

Gheerbrant E, Sudre J, Cappetta H. 1996. A Palaeocene Proboscidean from Morocco. Nature 383:68-71

Gopala A, Hadian O, Sunarto, Sitompul A, Williams A, Leimgruber P, Chambliss SE, Gunaryadi D. 2011. Elephas maximus ssp. sumatranus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2011.2; e.T199856A9129626 [species assessed 2011; page accessed 2018 Nov 06].

Gove PB. 1971. Webster's third new international dictionary of the English language, unabridged. Springfield (MA): Merriam-Webster.

Hart, B.L., L.A. Hart, M. McCoy and C.R. Saraths. 2001. Cognitive Behaviour in Asian Elephants: Use and Modification of Branches for Fly Switching. Animal Behaviour 62: 839-847.

Hutchinson, J. D. Schwerda, D. Famini, R. Dale, M. Fisher, R. Kram 2006.The locomotor kinematics of Asian and African elephants: changes with speed and size. The Journal of Experimental Biology 209:3812-3827.

IUCN. 2015. African Elephant Database

Kahl MP, Santiapillai C. 2004. A glossary of elephant terms. Gajah. 23:1-36.

Kurt, F. 1990. Asian Elephant In: S.P. Parker, ed. Grizmek's Encyclopedia Mammals Vol. 4. South Orange, NJ: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Lahdenperä, M., Mar, K.U. & Lummaa, V. Reproductive cessation and post-reproductive lifespan in Asian elephants and pre-industrial humans. Front Zool 11, 54 (2014).

Langbauer, W. R., 2000. Elephant communication. Zoo Biology 19(5):425-445.

Mariappa, D. 1986. Anatomy and Histiology of the Asian Elephant. Oak Park, MI: Indira Publishing House

Manoussaki, D., R. Chadwick, D. Ketten, J. Arruda, E. Dimitriadis, J. O'Malley. 2008 The influence of cochlear shape on low-frequency hearing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(16):6162-6166

McKay, G. M. 1973. Behavior and ecology of the Asiatic Elephant in Southeastern Ceylon. Smithsonian contributions to zoology, no. 125. Washington (DC): Smithsonian Institution Press.

McKay, G.M. 1990. Behavior and Ecology of the Asiatic Elephant In Southeastern Ceylon, In: J. Seidenstecker and S. Lumpkin, ed., Asian Elephants. Washington, D.C: Friends of the National Zoo

McNeely, J. 1992. Elephants As Beasts of Burden. In: Elephants: Majestic Creatures of the Wild, p 149-151. Emmaus, PN: Rodale Press.

Moss, C. 1990. Elephant Calves: The Story of Two Sexes. In: Elephants: Majestic Creatures of the Wild, p 106-113. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press

Nikaido, M., H. Nishihara, Y. Hukumoto, N. Okada 2003. Ancient SINEs from African Endemic Mammals. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20(4):522-527i

Nowak, R.M. 2018. Proboscidea: Elephantidae. In: Walker's mammals of the world: monotremes, marsupials, afrotherians, xenartrans, and sundatherians. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press; p. 463-536.

O'Connell-Rodwell, C.E., L. A. Hart, B. T. Arnason 2001. Exploring the potential use of seismic waves as a communication channel by elephants and other large mammals. American Zoologist 41(5):1157-1170

Payne, K. and W. Langbauer. 1992.  Elephant communication. In: Elephants: Majestic Creatures of the Wild, .p 18-35. Emmaus, PN: Rodale Press.

Palombo, M. R. and P. Villa 2001. Schreger lines as support in the Elephantinae identification. The World of Elephants - International Congress, Rome [PDF]

Poole, J. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. New York: Hyperion.

Poulakakis, N. A. Parmakelis, P. Lymberakis, M. Mylonas, E. Zouros, D. Reese, S. Glaberman, A. Caccone, 2006. Ancient DNA forces reconsideration of evolutionary history of Mediterranean pygmy elephantids. Biological Letters 2(3): 451-454.

Pringle, R. 2008. Elephants as agents of habitat creation for small vertebrates at the patch scale. Ecology 89(1):26-33.

Rasmussen, L. E. L. and V. Krishnamurthy, 2000. How chemical signals integrate Asian elephant society: The Known and the Unknown. Zoo Biology 19:405-423.

Reid, C. T. Hildebrandt, N. Marx, M. Hunt, N Thy, J. Reynes, W. Schaftenaar, J. Fickel 2006 Endotheliotropic elephant herpes virus (EEHV) infection. The first PCR-confirmed fatal case in Asia. Veterinary Quarterly 28 (2):61-4.

Richman, L. K, R. Montali, G. Hayward, 2000. Review of a Newly Recognized Disease of Elephants Caused by Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses. Zoo Biology 19:383-392.

Rohland, N., A. Malaspinas, J. Pollack, M. Slatkin, P. Matheus, M. Hofreiter 2007. Proboscidean Mitogenomics: chronology and mode of elephant evolution using mastodon as Outgroup. Public Library of Science Biology 5(8) (online 2007 July 24. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050207)

Roach, J. (2008, April 23).. "Extinct" Pygmy Elephants Found Living on Borneo. National Geographic News. Retrieved July 8, 2008.

Sampson C, McEvoy J, Oo ZM, Chit AM, Chan AN, Tonkyn D, Soe P, Songer M, Williams AC, Reisinger K, et al. 2018. New elephant crisis in Asia—Early warning signs from Myanmar. Slotow R, editor. PLOS ONE. 13(3):e0194113. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194113.

Santiapelli, C., and H. Suprahman. 1986. The Ecology of the Elephant (Elephas Maximus ) In the Way Kambas Game Reserve, Sumatra. Bogor: WWF/IUCN Final Report

Santiapelli, C., and P. Jackson. 1990. The Asian Elephant: An Action Plan for its Conservation. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Schulte, B.A. 2006. Behavior and Social Life.In: Biology, Medicine and Surgery of Elephants, p 35-44. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing .

Shoshani, J. and J.F. Eisenberg. 1982. Elephas Maximus. American Society of Mammalology. Species, No. 182. p 1-8.

Shoshani, J. 1992. Anatomy and physiology. In: J. Shoshani (ed), Elephants: Majestic Creatures of the Wild, p 66-80. Emmaus, PN: Rodale Press.

Shoshani, J. 1992. Comparing the living elephants. In: J. Shoshani (ed.)Elephants: Majestic Creatures of the Wild, Emmaus, PN: Rodale Press.

Shoshani, J. 1992. Evolution of the Proboscidea. In: J. Shoshani (ed) Elephants: Majestic Creatures of the Wild, p 18-35. Emmaus, PN: Rodale Press.

Shoshani, S.L. 1992. Famous Elephants. In: J. Shoshani (ed) Elephants: Majestic Creatures of the Wild, p 168-173 . Emmaus, PN: Rodale Press.

Shoshani, J. 2006. Taxonomy, Classification, History, and Evolution of the Elephants. In: Biology, Medicine and Surgery of Elephants. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing. p. 3-14.

Walter O, editors. 2010. Management guidelines for the welfare of zoo animals: elephants Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus. 3rd ed. London: British & Irish Association of Zoos & Aquariums. [PDF]

Sukumar, R. 1989. The Asian Elephant; Ecology and Management. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

Sukumar, R. 1994. Elephant Days and Nights. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Sukumar, R. 2003. The Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Sukumar, R. 2008, March 20. Factbox--Threats facing Asia's endangered wild elephants. Reuters Interview by Gillian Murdoch, Reuters. Retrieved 4/10/2008.

Thenius, E. 1990. Phylogeny In Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals 4: 484-488.

Tuttle, C .D. 1992. Elephants in Captivity. In: Elephants: Majestic Creatures of the Wild, p 184-193. Emmaus, PN: Rodale Press

UNEP. 2018. Species+: Elephas maximus [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2018 Nov 06].

Yang, H., E. Golenberg, J. Shoshani, 1996. Phylogenetic resolution within the Elephantidae using fossil DNA sequence from the American mastodon (Mammut americanum) as an outgroup. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93(3): 1190-1194.

Yokoyama, S., N. Takenaka, D. Agnew, J. Shoshani 2005. Elephants and human color-blind dauteranopes have identical sets of visual pigments. Genetics 170(1):335-344.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2019. [accessed 2019 Aug 06].

Additional Internet Resources

Asian Elephant

Close-up of an Asian Elephant's eye

Close-up of an Asian Elephant's eye.

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