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Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Abdullah, Supriadi, Syafrianti D, Khairil, Daud AM, Zulfikar. 2021. The habitat characteristics of Sumatran Elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in the forest of Serbajadi sub-district Aceh Province. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci. 922(1):012055. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/922/1/012055.

Abdullah-Fauzi NAF, Karuppannan KV, Mohd-Radzi NHS, Gani M, Mohd-Ridwan AR, Othman N, Haris H, Sariyati NH, Aifat NR, Latiff MABA-, et al. 2022. Determining the dietary preferences of wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Taman Negara National Park, Malaysia based on sex and age using trnL DNA metabarcoding analysis. Zool Stud. 61:60. doi:10.6620/ZS.2022.61-60.

Abhijitha CS, Areendran G, Raj K, Bhat P, Sahana M. 2021. Habitat linkages for Asian elephants in Central Indian landscape. In: Rukhsana, Haldar A, Alam A, Satpati L, editors. Habitat, Ecology and Ekistics. Cham: Springer International Publishing. (Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research). p. 75–89. [accessed 2023 Jul 12].

Ahlering MA, Hedges S, Johnson A, Tyson M, Schuttler SG, Eggert LS. 2011. Genetic diversity, social structure, and conservation value of the elephants of the Nakai Plateau, Lao PDR, based on non-invasive sampling. Conserv Genet. 12(2):413–422. doi:10.1007/s10592-010-0148-y.

Ahmed R, Saikia A. 2022. Pandora’s box: a spatiotemporal assessment of elephant- train casualties in Assam, India. Weckerly FW, editor. PLOS ONE. 17(7):e0271416. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0271416.

Albayrak E, Lister AM. 2012. Dental remains of fossil elephants from Turkey. Quat Int. 276–277:198–211. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.05.042.

Alfred R, Ahmad AH, Payne J, Williams C, Ambu LN, How PM, Goossens B. 2012. Home range and ranging behaviour of Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) females. Hayward M, editor. PLoS ONE. 7(2):e31400. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031400.

Ali R. 2005. An update on the elephants of Interview Island. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc. 102:221–223.

Allen WR. 2006. Review. Ovulation, pregnancy, placentation and husbandry in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Philsophical Transactions of the Royal Sopciety of London. Series B Biological Sciences 361(1469)821-34

Alter S. 2004. Elephas maximus: A Portrait of the Indian Elephant. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, Inc.

Athanassiou A, Van Der Geer AAE, Lyras GA. 2019. Pleistocene insular Proboscidea of the Eastern Mediterranean: A review and update. Quaternary Science Reviews. 218:306–321. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.06.028.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Bader C, Delapré A, Houssaye A. 2023. Shape variation in the limb long bones of modern elephants reveals adaptations to body mass and habitat. J Anat. 242(5):806– 830. doi:10.1111/joa.13827.

Barbier EB, Burgess JC, Swanson TM, Pearce DW. 1990. Elephants, economics and ivory. London (England): Routledge.

Baskaran N. 2013. An overview of Asian Elephants in the Western Ghats, southern India: implications for the conservation of Western Ghats ecology. J Threat Taxa. 5(14):4854–4870. doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3634.4854-70.

Baskaran N, Balasubramanian M, Swaminathan S, Desai AA. 1995. Home range of elephants in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, South India. In: Datye HS, Bombay Natural History Society, editors. A week with elephants: proceedings of the International Seminar on the Conservation of Elephant, June 1993. Bombay: Bombay Natural History Society. p. 296–313.

Baskaran N, Balasubramanian M, Swaminathan S, Desai AA. 2010. Feeding ecology of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus Linnaeus in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Southern India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc. 107(1):3–13.

Baskaran N, Desai AA. 1996. Ranging behavior of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in the Nilgiri biosphere reserve, South India. Gajah. 15:41–57.

Baskaran N, Varma S, Sar CK, Sukumar R. 2011. Current status of Asian elephants in India. Gajah. 35:47–54.

Beck BB. 1980. Animal tool behavior: the use and manufacture of tools by animals. New York: Garland STPM Pub (Garland series in ethology).

Beeck VC, Heilmann G, Kerscher M, Stoeger AS. 2021. A novel theory of Asian elephant high-frequency squeak production. BMC Biol. 19(1):121. doi:10.1186/s12915- 021-01026-z.

Benedict FG. 1936. The physiology of the elephant. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Berliani K, Alikodra HS, Masy’ud B, Kusrini MD. 2018. Evaluation of human—elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) conflict in Aceh Province, Indonesia. J Phys Conf Ser. 1116:052014. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1116/5/052014.

Berliani K, Hartini KS, Andriani Y. 2019. Daily activity of elephant allomothers (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Tangkahan Conservation Response Unit (CRU) Area,

Langkat, North Sumatera. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci. 305(1):012090. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/305/1/012090.

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Blake S, Hedges S. 2004. Sinking the flagship: the case of forest elephants in Asia and Africa. Conserv Biol. 18(5):1191–1202. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.01860.x.

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Brown JL. 2019. Update on comparative biology of elephants: factors affecting reproduction, health and welfare. In: Comizzoli P, Brown JL, Holt WV, editors. Reproductive Sciences in Animal Conservation. Vol. 1200. Cham: Springer International Publishing. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology). p. 243–273.

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Cabral De Mel SJ, Seneweera S, De Mel RK, Dangolla A, Weerakoon DK, Maraseni T, Allen BL. 2022. Current and future approaches to mitigate conflict between humans and Asian elephants: the potential use of aversive geofencing devices. Animals. 12(21):2965. doi:10.3390/ani12212965.

Campos-Arceiz A, Blake S. 2011. Megagardeners of the forest – the role of elephants in seed dispersal. Acta Oecologica. 37(6):542–553. doi:10.1016/j.actao.2011.01.014.

Campos‐Arceiz A, De La Torre JA, Wei K, Wu XO, Zhu Y, Zhao M, Chen S, Bai Y, Corlett RT, Chen F. 2021. The return of the elephants: How two groups of dispersing elephants attracted the attention of billions and what can we learn from their behavior. Conserv Lett. 14(6). doi:10.1111/conl.12836.

Campos-Arceiz A, Larrinaga AR, Weerasinghe UR, Takatsuki S, Pastorini J, Leimgruber P, Fernando P, Santamaría L. 2008. Behavior rather than diet mediates seasonal differences in seed dispersal by Asian elephants. Ecology. 89(10):2684–2691. doi:10.1890/07-1573.1.

Cappellini E, Gentry A, Palkopoulou E, Ishida Y, Cram D, Roos A-M, Watson M, Johansson US, Fernholm B, Agnelli P, et al. 2014. Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae). Zool J Linn Soc. 170(1):222–232. doi:10.1111/zoj12084.

Chaiyarat R, Wettasin M, Youngpoy N, Cheachean N. 2022. Use of human dominated landscape as connectivity corridors among fragmented habitats for wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in the eastern part of Thailand. Diversity. 15(1):6. doi:10.3390/d15010006.

Chartier L, Zimmermann A, Ladle RJ. 2011. Habitat loss and human–elephant conflict in Assam, India: does a critical threshold exist? Oryx. 45(4):528–533. doi:10.1017/S0030605311000044.

Chave E, Edwards KL, Paris S, Prado N, Morfeld KA, Brown JL. 2019. Variation in metabolic factors and gonadal, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal hormones in association with musth in African and Asian elephant bulls. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 276:1–13. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2019.02.005.

Chelliah K, Sukumar R. 2013. The role of tusks, musth and body size in male–male competition among Asian elephants, Elephas maximus. Anim Behav. 86(6):1207–1214. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.09.022.

Chelliah K, Sukumar R. 2015. Interplay of male traits, male mating strategies and female mate choice in the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. Behaviour. 152(7– 8):1113–1144. doi:10.1163/1568539X-00003271.

Chen J, Deng X, Zhang L, Bai Z. 2006. Diet composition and foraging ecology of Asian elephants in Shangyong, Xishuangbanna, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 26(2):309–316. doi:10.1016/S1872-2032(06)60006-1.

Chen S, Sun G-Z, Wang Y, Huang C, Chen Y, Liu P, Deng Y, Cao D-F, Zhang M-X, Ong S, et al. 2021. A multistakeholder exercise to identify research and conservation priorities for Asian elephants in China. Glob Ecol Conserv. 27:e01561. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2021.e01561.

Chen Y, Sun Y, Hua M, Shi K, Dudgeon D. 2023. Using genetic tools to inform conservation of fragmented populations of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) across their range in China. Integr Zool. 18(3):453–468. doi:10.1111/1749-4877.12680.

Chen Ying, Marino J, Chen Yong, Tao Q, Sullivan CD, Shi K, Macdonald DW. 2016. Predicting hotspots of human-elephant conflict to inform mitigation strategies in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. Cameron EZ, editor. PLOS ONE. 11(9):e0162035. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0162035.

Chevalier-Skolnikoff S, Liska J. 1993. Tool use by wild and captive elephants. Anim Behav. 46(2):209–219. doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1183.

Choudhury A. 1999. Status and conservation of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus in north-eastern India. Mammal Rev. 29(3):141–174. doi:10.1046/j.1365- 2907.1999.00045.x.

Choudhury A, Lahiri Choudhury DK, Desai A, Duckworth JW, Easa PS, Johnsingh AJT, Fernando P, Hedges S, Gunawardena M, Kurt F, Karanth U, Lister A, Menon V, Riddle H, Rübel A, Wikramanayake E 2008. Elephas maximus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2011.2; e.T7140A12828813 [species assessed 2008 Jun 30; page accessed 2018 Nov 06];

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de la Torre JA, Wong EP, Lechner AM, Zulaikha N, Zawawi A, Abdul‐Patah P, Saaban S, Goossens B, Campos‐Arceiz A. 2021. There will be conflict – agricultural landscapes are prime, rather than marginal, habitats for Asian elephants. Anim Conserv. 24(5):720– 732. doi:10.1111/acv.12668.

de Silva S. 2010. Acoustic communication in the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus maximus. Behaviour. 147(7):825–852. doi:10.1163/000579510X495762.

de Silva S, Ranjeewa AD, Kryazhimskiy S. 2011. The dynamics of social networks among female Asian elephants. BMC Ecol. 11(1):17. doi:10.1186/1472-6785-11-17.

de Silva S, Ranjeewa A, Kryazhimskiy S. 2011. The dynamics of social networks among female Asian elephants. BMC Ecology 11:17. doi:10.1186/1472-6785-11-17.

de Silva S, Ranjeewa ADG, Weerakoon D. 2011. Demography of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka based on identified individuals. Biol Conserv. 144(5):1742–1752. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.03.011.

de Silva S, Ruppert K, Knox J, Davis EO, Weerathunga US, Glikman JA. 2023. Experiences and emotional responses of farming communities living with Asian elephants in Southern Sri Lanka. Trees, Forests and People. 14:100441. doi:10.1016/j.tfp.2023.100441.

de Silva S, Schmid V, Wittemyer G. 2017. Fission–fusion processes weaken dominance networks of female Asian elephants in a productive habitat. BEHECO. 28(1):243–252. doi:10.1093/beheco/arw153.

de Silva S, Webber CE, Weerathunga US, Pushpakumara TV, Weerakoon DK, Wittemyer G. 2013. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations. Ryan SJ, editor. PLoS ONE. 8(12):e82788. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082788.

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Additional Internet Resources

Asian Elephant

Close-up of an Asian Elephant's eye

Close-up of an Asian elephant's eye.

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

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