Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance logo
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library logo

Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Albignac R. 1969. Naissance et elevage en captivite de jeunes Cryptoprocta ferox, verrides Malgaches. Mammalia. 33:93-97.

Albignac R. 1970. Notes ethologiques sur quelques carnivores Malagaches: le Cryptoprocta ferox (Bennett). Terr et Vie. 24:395-402.

Albignac R. 1973. Mammiferes carnivores. Paris: O.R.S.T.O.M.

Albignac R. 1984. The carnivores. In: Jolly A, Oberle P, Albignac R, editors. Key Environments Madagascar. p. 167-181.

Bennett E. 1835. Notice of a mammiferous animal from Madagascar, constituting a new form among the Viveridous Carnivora. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 1:137-140 + p. 121.

Dollar L, Ganzhorn JU, Goodman SM. 2007. Primates and other prey in the seasonally variable diet of Cryptoprocta ferox in the dry deciduous forest of western Madagascar. Primate Anti-Predator Strategies. 63-76.

Ewer R. 1973. The Carnivores. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press. p. 494.

Farris, ZJ et al. 2015. When carnivores roam: temporal patterns and overlap among Madagascar's native and exotic carnivores. Journal of Zoology. 296(1): 45-57.

Gerber BD, Karpanty SM, Randrianantenaina J. 2012. Activity patterns of carnivores in the rain forests of Madagascar: implications for species coexistence. Journal of Mammalogy. 93(3):667-676.

Gerber BD, Karpanty SM, Randrianantenaina J. 2012. The impact of forest logging and fragmentation on carnivore species composition, density and occupancy in Madagascar's rainforests. Oryx. 46(3):414-422.

Golden, CD, Comaroff J. 2015. Effects of social change on wildlife consumption taboos in northeastern Madagascar. Ecology and Society 20(2): 41.

Golden CD. 2009. Bushmeat hunting and use in the Makira Forest north-eastern Madagascar: a conservation and livelihoods issue. Oryx. 43(3):386-392. DOI: 10.1017/s0030605309000131

Goodman S. 2009. Family Eupleridae (Madagascar carnivores). In: Wilson DE, Mittermeier R, editors. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Barcelone (ES): Lynx Edicions. p. 330-351.

Goodman S, Ganzhorn J, Rakotondravony D. 2003. Mammals: introduction to the mammals. In: Goodman S, Benstead J, editors. The Natural History of Madagascar. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press. p. 1159-1186.

Goodman SM, Langrand O, Rasolonandrasana BPN. 1997. The food habits of Cryptoprocta ferox in the high mountain zone of the Andringitra Massif, Madagascar (Carnivora, Viverridae). Mammalia. 61(2):185-192.

Hawkins C. 1998. The behaviour and ecology of the fossa, Cryptoprocta ferox (Carnivora: Viverridae) in a dry deciduous forest in western Madagascar. Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen.

Hawkins C. 2003. Cryptoprocta ferox, Fossa, Fosa. In: Goodman S, Benstead J, editors. The Natural History of Madagascar. Chicago (IL): The University of Chicago Press. p. 1361-1363.

Hawkins C, Racey P. 2005. Low population density of a tropical forest carnivore, Cryptoprocta ferox: implications for protected area management. Oryx. 39(1):35-43.

Hawkins CE, Racey PA. 2008. Food habits of an endangered carnivore, Cryptoprocta ferox, in the dry deciduous forests of western Madagascar. Journal of Mammalogy. 89(1):64-74.

Hawkins CE, Racey PA. 2009. A novel mating system in a solitary carnivore: the fossa. Journal of Zoology. 277(3):196-204.

Hawkins F. 2016. Cryptoprocta ferox. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.1; e.T5760A45197189 [species assessed 2015 Feb 21; page accessed 2018 Sep 18].

Hornsey T. 1999. Breeding the fossa at Suffolk Wildlife Park. International Zoo News. 46(7):407-417.

Irwin MT, Raharison JL, Wright PC. 2009. Spatial and temporal variability in predation on rainforest primates: do forest fragmentation and predation act synergistically? Animal Conservation. 12(3):220-230.

Jenkins RKB et al. 2011. Analysis of Patterns of Bushmeat Consumption Reveals Extensive Exploitation of Protected Species in Eastern Madagascar. PLoS One. 6(12): e27570.

Jones JPG, Andriamarovololona MH, Hockley N. 2008. The importance of taboos and social norms to conservation in Madagascar. Conservation Biology. 22(4):976-986.

Kerridge FJ, Ralisoamalala RC, Goodman SM, Pasnick SD. 2003. Cryptoprocta ferox, Fossa. In: Goodman S, Benstead J, editors. The Natural History of Madagascar. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press. p. 1360-1363.

Köhncke M, Leonhardt K. 1986. Cryptoprocta ferox. Mammalian Species.(254):1–5. doi:10.2307/3503919.

Koepfli KP, Jenks SM, Eizirik E, Zahirpour T, Van Valkenburgh B, Wayne RK. 2006. Molecular systematics of the Hyaenidae: Relationships of a relictual lineage resolved by a molecular supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 38(3):603-620.

Krebs M. 2011. North American regional fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) studbook. Omaha (NE): Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo.

Krebs M, Bryan C. 2012. Population analysis and breeding and transfer plan fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) AZA Species Survival Plan Yellow Program. Omaha (NE): Omaha Zoo. p. 20.

Laborde C. 1986. Description of arboreal locomotion of Cryptoprocta ferox (Malagasy viverrid carnivore). Mammalia. 50(3):369-378.

Lührs ML, Dammhahn M. 2010. An unusual case of cooperative hunting in a solitary carnivore. Journal of Ethology. 28(2):379-383.

Lührs ML, Dammhahn M, Kappeler P. 2013. Strength in numbers: males in a carnivore grow bigger when they associate and hunt cooperatively. Behavioral Ecology. 24(1):21-28.

Lührs ML, Kappeler PM. 2013. Simultaneous GPS tracking reveals male associations in a solitary carnivore. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 67(11):1731-1743.

Lührs ML, Kappeler PM. 2014. Polyandrous mating in treetops: how male competition and female choice interact to determine an unusual carnivore mating system. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 68(6):879-889.

Reiter J, Winkler A. 2013. Husbandry Guidelines for the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). European Association of Zoos and Aquaria.16 p.

Richardson J. 1885. A new Malagasy-English dictionary. Antananarivo (MG): The London Missionary Society. 832 p.

TAG ASC. 2011. Mongoose, meerkat, and fossa (Herpestidae/Eupleridae) care manual. Silver Spring (MD): Association of Zoos and Aquariums. 103 p.

UNEP. 2018. Species+: Cryptoprocta ferox [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2018 Sep 18].

Veron G, Catzeflis FM. 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of the endemic Malagasy carnivore Cryptoprocta ferox (Aeluroideae): DNA/DNA hybridization experiments. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 1(3):169–185.

Vogler BR et al. 2009. Gonadal Activity in Male and Female Captive Fossas (Cryptoprocta ferox) During the Mating Season. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 44: 98-102.

Wright PC, Heckscher SK, Dunham AE. 1997. Predation on Milne-Edward's sifaka (Propithecus diadema edwardsi) by the fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) in the rain forest of southeastern Madagascar. Folia Primatologica. 68(1):34-43.

Yoder A, Flynn J. 2003. Origin of Malagasy Carnivora. In: Goodman S, Benstead J, editors. The Natural History of Madagascar. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press. p. 1253-1256.

Yoder A et al. 2003. Single origin of Malagasy carnivora from an African ancestor. Nature 421(6924): 734-737.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2018. [accessed 2018 Sep 25] .

Additional Internet Resources

SDZWA Library Links