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Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Agusti J, Anton M. 2005. Mammoths, sabertoths, and hominidis: 65 million years of mammalian evolution in Europe. New York: Columbia University Press.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Bard, J. 1977. A unity underlying the different zebra striping patterns. Journal of Zoology. 183:527-539.

Bauer, I. E., J. McMorrow, D. W. Yalden 1994. The historic ranges of three equid species in north-east Africa: a quantitative comparison of environmental tolerances. Journal of Biogeography 21: (2) pp.169-182.

Bell, C. (Ed) 2001. Encyclopedia of the World's Zoos. Vol 3. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. Chicago, London.

Bennett D. 1980. Stripes do not a zebra make, part 1: a cladistic analysis of Equus. Systematic Zoology. 29(3):272-287.

Brown R. 1956. Composition of scientific words. Published by the author.

Carroll, S. 2005. Endless forms most beautiful: the new science of evo devo and the making of the animal kingdom. Norton, New York.

Churcher, C.S. 1993. Equus grevyi. Mammalian Species 453:1-9.

Duncan P, Groves C. 2013. Genus Equus: asses, zebras. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M, editors. Mammals of Africa: carnivores, pangolins, equids, and rhinoceroses. London (GB): Bloomsbury. p. 412-413.

Eisenmann V. 1992. Origins, dispersals, and migrations of Equus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla). Courier Forschungs Institut Senkenberg 153:161-170.

Estes, R. D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London. pp. 235-248.

Federal Register 1979. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Listing of Grevy's Zebra and Hartmann's Mountain Zebra as Threatened Species. Vol. 44 (183) August 21 1979.

Fischer M. 2013. AZA North America Regional Studbook for Grevy's Zebra Equus grevyi. Saint Louis (MO): Saint Louis Zoo. 116 p.

Forstén, A. 1988. Middle Pleistocene replacement of Stenoid horses by Caballoid horses-ecological implications. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 65:23-33.

Froehlich, D. J. 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of basal perissodactyls. Journal of Vertebrate paleontology 19(1):140-159.

Froehlich, D. 2002. Quo vaids eohippus? The systematics and taxonomy of the early Eocene equids (Perissodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 134(2):141-256

Ginsberg, J. 1989. The ecology of female behavior and male mating success in the Grevy's zebra. Zoological Society of London Symposia 61:89-110.

Gould, S. J. 1981. What color is a Zebra? Natural History. 90(8):16-17, 22.

Gove PB, editor. 1993. Webster's third new international dictionary of the English language, unabridged. Springfield (MA): Merriam Webster.

Griner, L.A. 1983. Pathology of Zoo Animals. Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego.

Groves, C. P. 1974. Horses, Asses and Zebras in the Wild. Ralph Curtis Books, Hollywood, Florida. pp. 152-157

Groves C. 2013. Family Equidae: asses, zebras. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M, editors. Mammals of Africa: carnivores, pangolins, equids, and rhinoceroses. London (GB): Bloomsbury. p. 410-412.

Groves, C. P. and C. Bell 2004. New investigations on the taxonomy of the zebras genus Equus, subgenus Hippotigris. Mammalian Biology 69 (3): 182-196.

Groves, C. P. and O.A. Ryder 2000. Systematics and phylogeny of the horse. In: A. T. Bowling and A. Ruvinsky (Eds) The Genetics of the Horse. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK

Isaza, R. C. Schiller, J. Stover, P. Smith, E. Greiner 2000. Halicephalobus gingivalis (nematoda) infection in a Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 3:77-81.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) 2010. Uploaded Feb. 2010.

Kenya's National Grevy's Zebra Task Force 2008. Conservation and management strategy for Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi) in Kenya: 2007-2011 [PDF]. Kenya Wildlife Service. formulated at Grevy's Zebra workshop at Naivasha in 2007.

Klingel, H. 1974. A comparison of the social behaviour of the Equidae. In: V. Geist and F. Walther (Eds) The Behaviour of ungulates and its relation to management. IUCN Publications New Series No. 24 Vol. I:124-132. International Symposium, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada 1971.

Klingel, H. 1990 Horses. In: Grizmek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Vol. 4 McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. pp. 557-582.

King, J. M.. 1965. A field guide to the reproduction of the Grant's Zebra and Grevy's Zebra. East African Wildlife Journal Vol. 2. pp. 99-117.

Kingdon, J. 2001. The zebra's stripes. In: D. Macdonald (Ed) The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Andromeda Oxford, Barnes and Noble, Inc. p. 468.

Kingdon, J., 1979. East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. Vol. III Part B (Large Mammals). Academic Press, New York. pp. 125-179.

Langenhorst, T. 2012. International Studbook for Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi) [PDF]. Marwell Preservation Trust and Department of Conservation and Wildlife Management, Colden Common, Hampshire, UK.

MacClintock, D. 1976. A Natural History of Zebras. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Marean, C. W. and D. Gifford-Gonzales 1991. Late Quaternary extinct ungulates in East Africa and palaeoenvironmental implications. Nature, 350, 418-420.

Moehlman P.D., D.I. Rubenstein, and F. Kebede 2008. Equus grevyi. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Downloaded on 14 April 2010.

Muoria, P. P. Muruthi, D. Rubenstein, N. O. Oguge, and E. Munene. (2005) Cross-sectional survey of gastro-intestinal parasites of Grevy’s zebras in southern Samburu, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 43, 392–395

Muoria, P., P. Muruthi, W. Kariuki, B. Hassan, D. Mijele, and N. Oguge 2007. Anthrax outbreak among Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) in Samburu, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 45(4):483-489.

Oakenfull, E.A., H. Lim, O. Ryder 2000. A survey of equid mitochondrial DNA: implications for the evolution, genetic diversity and conservation of Equus. Conservation Genetics 1(4):341-355.

Orlando L., Metcalf, J. L. Alberdi, M. T. Telles-Antunes M. Bonjean D., Otte M. et al. 2009. Revising the recent evolutionary history of equids using anccient DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(51): 21754–21759.

Prothero DR. 2013. Order Perissodactyla – equids, rhinoceroses, tapirs. In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M., editors. Mammals of Africa, vol. 5: carnivores, pangolins, equids and rhinoceroses. London (GB): Bloomsbury. p 408-409.

Prothero, D. and Schoch, R. 2002. Horns, Tusks, and Flippers: The Evolution of Hoofed Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London. pp. 212-221

Rowen, M. and J.R. Ginsberg 1992. Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi Oustalet) in IUCN/SSC Action Plan for the Conservation of Wild Equids, P. Duncan, (Ed), IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.

Rubenstein, D. I. 1989. Life history and social organization in arid adapted ungulates [PDF]. Journal of Arid Environments 17:145-156.

Rubenstein, D. I. 1986. Ecology and sociality in horses and zebras. Rubenstein, D. I. and R. W. Wrangham (Eds.) In: Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Rubenstein, D., Low Mackey, B., Davidson, ZD, Kebede, F. & King, S.R.B. 2016. Equus grevyi. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T7950A89624491 [species assessed 2016 Aug 25; page accessed 2019 Mar 19]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T7950A89624491.en.

Ruxton, G. D. 2002. The possible fitness benefits of striped coat coloration for zebra. Mammal Review 32:237-244.

Ryder, O. 2009. Rhinoceroses, tapirs, and horses (Perissodactyla). in The Timetree of Life. Hedges, S. and S. Kumar (Eds.) Oxford University Press.

Simerson, C., B. Low, M. Fischer 2005. People make it happen:forging partnerships for conservation. Zoonooz. Sept. 2005. pp. 18-22.

Steiner C, Ryder O. 2011. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the Perissodactyla. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society. 163(4):1289-1303. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00752.x

Sundaresan, S., I. Fischhoff, H. Hartung, P. Akilong, D. Rubenstein 2007. Habitat choice of Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) in Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 46:359-364.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: Equus grevyi [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Mar 19]. 

Waage, J.K. 1981. How the zebra got its stripes: biting flies as selective agents in the evolution of zebra coloration. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 44:351-358.

Webber, M. and R. Miller, 1997. Presumptive red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 28(1):105-108.

Weinstock J., E Willersley, A. Sher, W. Tong, S. Y. W Ho , D Rubenstein. 2005. Evolution, systematics, and phylogeography of Pleistocene horses in the New World: a molecular perspective. PLoS Biology 3(8): e241. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030241.

Williams, S. D. 2002. Status and Action Plan for Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi). In: Equids: Zebras, Asses, and Horses: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, P.D. Moehlman (ED), IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group: Gland, Switzerland. p 11-27.

Williams, S. D., A. P. W.Nelson and F. Kebede, 2003. Grevy's Zebra Survey: Ethiopia 2003 Report. Wildlife conservation research Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Wilson. D. E. and D. M. Reeder (Eds), 1993. Mammal species of the world. A taxonomic and geographic reference. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Willoughby D. 1974. The empire of Equus. South Brunswick (NJ): A.S. Barnes and Company.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2015. [accessed 2019 Mar 19].

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