Skip to Main Content
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance logo
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library logo

Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) & Pygmy Hippopotamus (Choerpsis liberiensis) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Barklow, W. 1994. Big talkers. Wildlife Conservation. January/February,  pp. 20-29, 80.

Barklow, W. 1995. Hippo Talk. Natural History Magazine 104(5) p. 54

Barklow, W.E. 1997 Some underwater sounds of the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 29 (1-4); pp. 237-249.

BBC Wildlife. 2009 November. Hippos Attack Crocodiles.

Behrensmeyer, A., A. Deino, A. Hill, J. Kingston, J. Saunders 2002. Geology and geochronology of the middle Miocene Kipsaramon site complex, Muruyur Beds, Tugen Hills, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 42:11-38.

Bere RM. 1959. Queen Elizabeth National Park: Uganda The hippopotamus problem and experiment. Oryx. 5(3):116–124. doi:10.1017/S0030605300000454.

Boisserie, J-R., F. Lihoreau, M. Brunet 2005. The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102(5)1537-1541.

Boisserie, J-R. 2005. The phylogeny and taxonomy of Hippopotamidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla): a review based on morphology and cladistic analysis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 143:(1):1-26.

Boisserie, J-R. 2008. Hippopotamus lemerlei In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. <>.

Boisserie, J-R. In Press. Genus Choeropsis. In: Kingdon, J.S. and M. Hoffmann (Eds.), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Colbert, E.H. and M. Morales.1990.  Evolution of the Vertebrates. New York: Wiley-Liss,  p. 384.

Cott, 1975. The Nile Crocodile. In: Looking at Animals: a Zoologist in Africa. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. pp.135-153.

Coughlin, B. and F. Fish 2009. Hippopotamus underwater locomotion: reduced-gravity movements for a massive mammal. Journal of Mammalogy 90(3):675-679.

Cowan , D. W., W. M. Thurlbeck, R. M. Laws 1967. Some diseases of the Hippopotamus in Uganda [PDF]. Pathologia Veterinaria Online.

Deeble, M. and V. Stone 2001. Kenya's Mzima Spring Comes Alive. Online Extra. November 2001. National Geographic Magazine. Downloaded June 2010.

Dewar, R. E. 1984. Extinctions in Madagascar. The loss of the subfossil fauna. In: P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein (eds), Quaternary extinctions. A prehistoric revolution, pp. 574-593. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Dorst J. and P. Dandelot. 1980.  A Field Guide to the Larger Mammals of Africa. London: William Collins Sons & Co,  pp.171-172.

Dudley, J.P. (1996) Record of carnivory, scavenging and predation for Hippopotamus amphibius in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, Mammalia, 60(3); pp. 486-488.

Eltringham, S.K. 1993. The Pygmy Hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis). IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Eltringham, S.K. 1999. Hippos: Natural History and Conservation. Academic Press, London and San Diego, CA

Eltringham, S. K. 2001. Hippopotamuses. In: MacDonald, D. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Mammals. Andromeda Oxford Limited. UK

Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. Berkeley: University of California Press p 222-227.

Fisher, R. K. Scott, B. Adrian 2010. Hind limb myology of the common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius (Artiodactyla: Hippopotamidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158:661-682.

Galasso, V. F. Pichierri 2009. Probing the molecular and electronic structure of Norhipposudoric and hipposudoric acids from the red sweat of Hippopotamus amphibius: a DFT investigation. Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 113(11)2534-2543.

Harris, J. M., R.E. Cerling, M. G. Leakey, B. H. Passey 2008. Stable isotope ecology of fossil hippopotamids from the Lake Turkana Basin of East Africa. Journal of Zoology 275(3):323-331.

Hlavacek, G., Zschokke, S. and Pagan, O. 2005. International Studbook for the Pygmy Hippopotamus Hexaprotodon liberiensis (Morton, 1844). Basle Zoo, Switzerland.

Jablonski, N. 2004. The hippo's tale: how the anatomy and physiology of Late Neogene Hexaprotodon shed light on Late Neogene environmental change. Quaternary International 117:119-123.

Kingdon, J. 1979. East African Mammals, Volume III Part B (Large Mammals). London : Academic Press,  pp. 180-277.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, London.

Klingel, H. 1990. Hippopotamuses. In: Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals Vol 5. New York: McGraw-Hill,  pp. 60-79.

Klingel H. 1995. Fluctuating Fortunes of the River Horse. Natural History 5/95, 46-57.

Klingel H. 2013. Hippopotamus amphibius common hippopotamus. In: Mammals of Africa, vol. VI: pigs, hippopotamuses, chevrotain, giraffes, deer and bovids. London (UK): Bloomsbury. p. 68-78.

Kofron, C. 1990.The reproductive cycle of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Journal of Zoology, 221(3): 477 - 488.

Lang, E. M., K. Hentschel, W. Bulow 1990. Pygmy Hippotamuses (Genus Choeropsis). In Parker, S. (Ed.) Grizmek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Vol 5 pp. 62-64.

Laws, R.M. 1968. Dentition and Ageing of the Hippopotamus.  East African Wildlife Journal, 6:19-52.

Laws, R. M., Parker, I.S.C., Johnstone, R.C.B. 1975. Elephants and their Habitats. Clarendon Press, Oxford 376 pp.

Lewison, R. & Oliver, W. 2008a. Choeropsis liberiensis. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1.

Lewison, R. & Oliver, W. 2008b. Hippopotamus amphibius. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T10103A3163790.en.

Lewison, R. and J. Pluháček. 2017. Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T10103A18567364. [species assessed 2016 Jun 16; page accessed 2019 Feb 26]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T10103A18567364.en.

Lihoreau, F. J-R. Boisserie, L. Viriot, Y. Coppens, A. Likius, H. Mackaye, P. Tafforeau, P. Vignaud, M. Brunet 2006. Anthracothere dental anatomy reveals a late Miocene Chado-Libyan bioprovince. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(23):8763-8767.

Meester, J., and H.W.Setzer,  (Eds.) 1971. The Mammals of Africa; An Identification Manual. Washington : Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 10-11.

MacPhee, R. D. E. and Burney, D. A. 1991. Dating of modified femora of extinct dwarf hippopotamus from southern Madagascar: implications for constraining human colonization and vertebrate extinction events. Journal of Archaeological Science 18: 695-706.

MacPhee, R. D. E. and Flemming, C. 1999. Requiem Aeternam. The last five hundred years of mammalian extinctions. In: R. D. E. MacPhee (ed.), Extinctions in Near Time, pp. 333-371. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA.

Morgan, J.A. R.J. DeJong, F. Kazibwe, G.M. Mkoji, E.S. Loker 2003. A newly-identified lineage of Schistosoma. International Journal of Parasitology. 33(9):977-85

Mosepele, K., P. Moyle, G. Merron, D. Purkey, B. Mosepele 2009. Fish, floods, and ecosystem engineers: Aquatic conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Bioscience 59(1):53-64.

Nowak, R.M. 1991.  Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed. Baltimore MD : Johns Hopkins University Press,  pp. 1347-1350.

O'Connor, T.G., and  B.M. Campbell. 1986.  Hippopotamus habitat relationships on the Lundi River, Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe.  African Journal of Ecology, 24:7-26 .

Oliver, R.C D. and W.A. Laurie 1975. Birds associating with Hippopotamus. Auk 91:169-170.

Oliver, W.L.R. ed. 1993. Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Status Survey and Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN  p. 41-59.

Parker, V. 2010. Personal communication.

Pitman, C.R.S. (1962). Albino hippopotamus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 139(4): 531-534.

Ransom, C., P.T. Robinson, and B. Collen. 2015. Pygmy Hippopotamus Hippopotamus liberiensis. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.2; e.T10032A18567171. [species assessed 2015 Feb 23; page accessed 2019 Feb 26]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T10032A18567171.en

Ravazzi, C. R. Pini, M. Breda 2009. Reconstructing the palaeoenvironments of the early Pleistocene mammal faunas from the pollen preserved on fossil bones. Quaternary Science Reviews: 28(25/26):2940-2954.

Roberts, A. 1954. The Mammals of South Africa. South Africa : Central News Agency,  p. 264-265.

Rose, M. 2010. World's First Zoo. Archaeology 63(1):25.

Ruggiero, R.G. 1996 Interspecific feeding associations - mutualism and semi-parasitism between hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius) and African Jacanas (Actophilornis Africanus). Ibis. 138(2); pp. 346-348.

Saikawa, Y., Hashimoto, K., Nakata, M., Yoshihara, M., Nagai, K., Ida, M., and Komiya, T. (2004 May 27) Pigment chemistry: The red sweat of the hippopotamus, Nature, 429(6990); p. 363.

Schwartz, D. (1996). Snatching scientific secrets from the hippo's gaping jaws. Smithsonian 26(12): 90-102.

Smuts G.L. and I.J. Whyte. 1981. Relationships between reproduction and environment in the hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius in the Kruger National Park. Koedoe, 24:169-185.

Stuenes, S. 1989. Taxonomy, habits, and relationships of the subfossil Madagascan hippopotami Hippopotamus lemerlei and H. madagascariensis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9(3): 241-268.

Thewissen, J. G. M., L.N. Cooper, M.T. Clementz, S. Bajpai, and B. N. Tiwari 2007. Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India. Nature 450:1190-1194.

Thompson, S. 2002. North American Regional Studbook for the Pygmy Hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis). Lincoln Park Zoo.

Thomson, A.L. (1964). Birds associated with elephants and hippopotamuses. Auk 81 (3): 436.

UNEP. 2019a. Species+: Hippopotamus amphibius [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Oct 15].

UNEP. 2019b. Species+: Hexaprotodon liberiensis [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Oct 15].

Vaughan, T. J. Ryan, N. Czaplewski 2011. Mammalogy. Fifth Edition. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA. pp. 568

Weigl, R. 2005. Longevity of Mammals in Captivity; from the Living Collections of the World. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48. Stuttgart, Germany. p. 129

Wilson, D.E., and D.M. Reeder eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. p 381.

Additional Internet Resources

SDZWA Library Links