Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance logo
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library logo

Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis) Fact Sheet: Summary

Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis)

Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis) Fact Sheet

komodo dragon

Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis)

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

 

Taxonomy Physical Characteristics

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Reptilia - reptiles

Order: Squamata - amphibians, lizards, snakes

Family: Varanidae - monitors, monitor lizards

Genus: Varanus

Species: Varanus komodoensis - Komodo dragon

Body Weight
Male: up to 136 kg (300 lb)
Female: up to 70 kg (154 lb)

Body Length
Male: 3 m (10 ft)
Female: 2 m (6.6 ft)

Coloration
Gray or clay colored skin, finely spotted with orange and yellow as adults. Brighter, speckled skin when younger. Distinctive light yellow tongue.

Distribution & Status Behavior & Ecology

Range
Five islands in Indonesia, including Komodo

Habitat
Flat savanna, rocky valleys, beaches

IUCN Status
Vulnerable (1996 assessment)

CITES Appendix
Appendix I

Other Designations
Protected under Indonesian Law

Population in Wild
5,700 individuals (all islands combined); approximately 2,500 in Komodo National Park

Locomotion
Body, head, and tail undulate from side-to-side when walking. Hold tail and body rigid when running. Good swimmers, like other monitor lizards. Climb trees as youngsters.

Activity Cycle
Primarily diurnal. Activity peaks during mid-morning and mid-afternoon. Spend most time thermoregulating and sleeping.

Social Groups
Solitary. Interact with one another only during breeding or at feeding/carcass sites.

Diet
Wide carnivorous diet. Feed on carrion and hunt animals along game trails.

Predators
Humans

Reproduction & Development Species Highlights

Sexual Maturity
5-7 years of age

Incubation
2.5-8 months

Clutch Size
1-30 eggs (18 is average)

Hatching Weight
80 g (2.8 oz)

Longevity
About 30 years

Feature Facts

  • The world's largest living lizard
  • One of the few venomous lizards
  • Chain mail-like skin, covered with protective scales
  • Young Komodo dragons live in trees; eat insects
  • Very small home ranges
  • Able to eat a lot of food very quickly!
  • Sharp, curved claws for digging
  • Hissing produce to defend food and by females during mating
  • Habitat loss poses the greatest conservation threat
  • The San Diego Zoo received its first Komodo dragons in 1963

About This Fact Sheet

© 1998-2021 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. Population estimates updated Aug 2018. Husbandry information updated Mar 2021.

 

How to cite: Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis) Fact Sheet. c1998-2018. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ komododragon
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Sep 10)

 

Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to library@sdzwa.org.

Acknowledgments

Thank you to Mike Garr and Davis Provan for sharing their knowledge of Komodo dragon husbandry for the Managed Care section of this fact sheet.

Mike and Davis are wildlife care specialists for Komodo dragons at the San Diego Zoo. Mike has 14 years of experience caring for Komodo dragons at the San Diego Zoo and Disney’s Animal Kingdom. Davis has been part of the San Diego Zoo’s animal care team for 3 years and has extensive experience in reptile husbandry. In addition to providing care to the Zoo’s Komodo dragons, Mike and Davis most enjoy working the San Diego Zoo's endangered turtles, crocodilians, and venomous snakes.

SDZWA Library Links