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Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Abreu KC, Moro-Rios RF, Silva-Pereira JE, Miranda JMD, Jablonski EF, Passos FC. 2008. Feeding habits of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Southern Brazil. Mammalian Biology 73:407-411.

André MR, Adania CH, Machado RZ, Allegretti SM, Felippe AN, et al. 2009. Molecular detection of Cytauxzoon spp. in asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45(1):234-237.

Arizona Game & Fish Department. 2011, Feb 8. Rare ocelot observed in southern Arizona. Retrieved November 27 2011 from: Original article no longer online, but see this news article.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Berta A. 1983. A new species of small cat (Felidae) from the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene (Uquian) of Argentina. Journal of Mammalogy 64:720–725.

Bianchi RDC, Mendes SL. 2007. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, southeast Brazil. American Journal of Primatology 69:1173-1178.

Bianchi RDC, Mendes SL, De Marco P. 2010. Food habits of the ocelot, Leopardus pardalis, in two areas in southeast Brazil. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 45(3):111-119.

Bragin N. 2011. AZA North American regional studbook for ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). Denver, Colorado:The Denver Zoo. 90 pp.

Bragin, N., K. Kaemmerer, and B. Wiese. 2001. Ocelot population management plan Leopardus (Felis) pardalis. American Zoo and Aquarium Association. Silver Spring,
MD. 19 pp.

Cahalane VH. 1958. Mammals of North America. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. 280.

Campbell L. 2003. Endangered and threatened animals of Texas: their life history and management. Austin, Texas: Texas Parks & Wildlife. Retrieved 30 November 2011 from

Caso A, Lopez-Gonzalez C, Payan E, Eizirik E, de Oliveira T, et al. 2008. Leopardus pardalis. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 14 October 2011 from

Cisin C. 1967. Especially ocelots. Armagansett, New York: Harry Cisin Publisher. 168 pp.

CITES 2011. Ocelot. Retrieved 10 November 2011 from

Conover A. 2002. Not a lot of ocelots. Smithsonian Magazine. June: 64-68.

Crawshaw PG, Quigley HB. 1989. Notes on ocelot movement and activity in the Pantanal region, Brazil. Biotropica 21:377-379. Retrieved from

Crespo JA. 1982. Ecología de la communidad de mamíferos del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones. Revista del Museuo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Ecología 3(2):45-=162.

Davis WB. 1974. The mammals of Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Bulletin 41:1-252.

De Oliveira TG, Mazim FD, Kasper CB, Tortato MA, Soares JBG, Marques RV. In press. Small neotropical felids density in Brazil: a preliminary demographic assessment of the little known species. Biological Conservation.

De Oliveira TG, Torato MA, Silveira L, Kasper DB, Mazim FD, et al. 2010. Ocelot ecology and its effect on the small-felid guild in the lowland neotropic. In: Macdonald DW, Loveridge AJ (Eds.). Biology and conservation of wild felids. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 559-580.

Di Bitetti MS, Paviolo A, de Angelo C. 2006. Density, habitat use and activity patterns of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina. Journal of Zoology 270:153-163.

Di Bitetti MS, Paviolo A, de Angelo C, Di Blanco YE. 2008. Local and continental correlates of the abundance of a neotropical cat, the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). Journal of Tropical Ecology 24:189-200.

Eaton R. 1977. Breeding biology and propagation of the ocelot (Leopardus [Felis] pardalis). Zoologische Garten 1:72-81.

Eaton RL 1984. Survey of smaller felid breeding. Zoological Garten 54:(1/2):101-20.

Eizirik ES, Bonatto SL, Johnson WE, Crawshaw PG, Vie JC, et al. 1998. Phylogeographic patterns and evolution of the mitochondrial DNA control region in two Neotropical cats (Mammalia, Felidae). Journal of Molecular Evolution 47:613–624.

Emmons LH. 1987. Comparative feeding ecology of felids in a neotropical rainforest. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 20:271-283.

Emmons LH. 1988. A field study of ocelots (Felis pardalis) in Peru. Revue d'Ecologie (Terre Vie) 43:133-157. [PDF from Semantic Scholar].

Emmons LH, Sherman P, Bolster D, Goldizen A, Terborgh J. 1989. Ocelot behavior in moonlight. In: Redford KH, Eisenberg JF (Eds.). Advances in neotropical mammalogy. Gainesville, Florida: The Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. pp. 233-242.

Federal Register. 2010, Aug 26. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: draft ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) recovery plan, first revision. Federal Register 75(165). Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office. Retrieved 10 November 2011 from

Franklin SP, Kays RW, Moreno R, TerWee JA, Troyer JL, VandeWoude S. 2008. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but not other common feline and canine viruses. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44(3):760-765.

Goulart FVB, Graipel ME, Tortato MA, Ghizoni IR, Rodrigues LG, et al. 2009. Ecology of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 4(3):137-143.

Guggisberg CAW. 1975. Wild Cats of the World. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company.

Haines AM, Janecka JE, Tewes ME, Grassman LI, Morton P. 2006. The importance of private lands for ocelot Leopardus pardalis conservation in the United States. Oryx 40:90–94.

Harwell G, Siminski D. 1990. Listed cats of Texas and Arizona recovery plan (with emphasis on the ocelot). Albuquerque, NM: Endangered Species Office, US Fish and Wildlife Service. 131 pp.

Horne JS, Haines AM, Tewes ME, Laack LL. 2009. Habitat partitioning by sympatric ocelots and bobcats: implications for recovery of ocelots in southern Texas. Southwestern Naturalist 54:119-126

International Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). 2011. Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758). Retrieved 10 November 2011 from

IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. 2019. Ocelot Leopardus pardalis. Muri: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group [accessed 2019 Apr 10].

Izawa K. 1978. A field study of the ecology and behavior of the black-mantle tamarin (Saguinus nigricollis). Primates 19:241-74.

Janecka JE, Tewes ME, Laack LL, Grassman LI, Haines AM, Honeycutt RL. 2008. Small effective population sizes of two remnant ocelot populations (Leopardus pardalis albescens) in the United States. Conservation Genetics 9:869-878.

Janecka JE, Walker CW, Tewes ME, Caso A, Laack LL, Honeycutt RL. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of ocelot (Leopardalis pardalis albescens) populations from the Tamaulipan biotic province and implications for recovery.  Southwestern Naturalist 52:89-96. Retrieved from;2

Johnson WE, Eizirik E, Pecon-Slattery J, Murphy WJ, Antunes A, Teeling E, O'Brien SJ. 2006. The late Miocene radiation of modern felidae: a genetic assessment. Science 311:73-77.

Kaemmerer K. 2011. Ocelot SSP 2010 mid-year report. Felid Taxon Advisory Group (TAG) 2010 Annual Report. Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Retrieved 30 November 2011 from (no longer available online).

Kaemmerer K, Bragin N, Groome C.. 2011. Population analysis & breeding and transfer plan. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). AZA Species Survival Plan Yellow Program. Chicago, Illinois: AZA Population Management Center. 39 pp.

Kitchener A. 1991. The natural history of the wild cats. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing. 280 pp.

Kitchener AC, Breitemoser-Würsten C, Eizirik E, Gentry A, Werdelin L, Wilting A, Wamaguchi N, Abramov A, Christiansen P, Driscoll C, et al. 2017. A revised taxonomy of the Felidae. The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group. Cat News Spec. Issue 11, 80 pages.

Klepper ED. 2010. In the blink of a golden eye. Texas Parks and Wildlife Magazine. Retrieved 30 November 2011 from

Laack L, Tewes ME, Haines AM, Rappole JH. 2005. Reproductive life history of ocelots Leopardus pardalis in southern Texas. Acta Theriologica 50(4):505-514.

Leon y Gama 1792. Descripcion historica y cronologica de dos piedras que con ocasion del nuevo empedrado que se esta formando en la plaza principal de Mexico...Mexico: Don F. de Zuniga y Ontiveros. Retrieved November 10 2011 from

Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classis, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th ed.. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii 1(42):824.

López González CA, Brown DE, Gallo-Reynoso JP. 2003. The Ocelot Leopardus pardalis in north-western Mexico: Ecology, distribution and conservation status. Oryx 37:358-364. doi:10.1017/S0030605303000620.

Ludlow ME, Sunquist M. 1987. Ecology and behavior of ocelots in Venezuela. National Geographic Research 3:447-461.

Maffei L, Noss AJ. 2008. How small is too small? Camera trap survey areas and density estimates for ocelots in the Bolivian Chaco. Biotropica 40:71-75.

Mansard P. 1990. Oestrous cycles and oestrous behaviour in the ocelot (Felis pardalis). Ratel 17:180-183.

Mansard P. 1991. Ocelot. In: Partridge J. (Ed.). Management guidelines for exotic cats. Bristol, United Kingdom: The Association of British Wild Animal Keepers. pp. 92-102.

Mellen JD. 1997. Minimum husbandry guidelines for mammals: small felids. American Association of Zoos and Aquariums. 5 pp. Retrieved from:

Mellen, J.D. (1997) Minimum Husbandry Guidelines for Mammals: Small Felids. American Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Retrieved 7 December 2011 from pdf/Zoo Standards for Keeping Small Felids in Captivity.pdf (no longer available online).

Meza AD, Meyer EM, Gonzalez CAL. 2002. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) food habits in a tropical deciduous forest of Jalisco, Mexico. American Midland Naturalist 148:146-154.

Mondolfi E. 1986. Notes on the biology and status of the small wild cats in Venezuela. In: Miller SD, Everett DD (Eds.). Cats of the world: biology, conservation and management. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation. pp. 85-124.

Morehead WK. 1968. The Hopewell mound group of Ohio. Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, publication 211, VI(5):1-186.

Morais RN, Mucciolo RG, Gomes MLF, Lacerda O, Moraes W. Moreira N, et al. 2002. Seasonal analysis of semen characteristics, serum testorsterone and fecal androgens in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), margay (L. wiedii) and tigrina (L. tigrinus). Theriogenology 57(8):2027-204. doi:10.1016/S0093-691X(02)00707-0 

Moreira N, Monteiro-Filho ELA, Moraes W, Swanson WF, Graham LH, et al. 2001. Reproductive steroid hormones and ovarian activity in felids of the Leopardus genus. Zoo Biology 20:103-116.

Moreno RS, Kays RW, Samudio R. 2006. Competitive release in diets of ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and puma (Puma concolor) after jaguar (Panthera onca) decline. Journal of Mammalogy 87(4):808-816.

Murray JL, Gardner GL. 1997. Leopardus pardalis. Mammalian Species 548:1-10

Nowak RM. 1999. Walker's mammals of the world. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 816-817.

Nowell K, Jackson P. 1996. Ocelot, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Nowell K, Jackson P. (Eds.). Wild cats: status survey and conservation action plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. pp. 137-140.

O’Brien SJ, Martenson JS, Miththapala S, Janczewski, et al. 1996. Conservation genetics of Felidae. In: Avise JC, Hamrick JL (Eds.). Conservation genetics: case histories from nature. New York: Chapman and Hall. pp. 50-74.

Paviolo A, Crawshaw P, Caso A, de Oliveira T, Lopez-Gonzalez CA, Kelly M, De Angelo C, Payan E. 2020. Leopardus pardalis. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2020.2; e.T11509A97212355 [species assessed 2014 May 10; page accessed 2020 Oct 27]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T11509A50653476.en.

Redford KH, Eisenberg JF. 1992. Mammals of the Neotropics: the southern cone. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Roemer GW, Gompper ME, Van Valkenburgh B. 2009. The ecological role of the mammalian mesocarnivore. Bioscience 59(2):165-173.

Seager SWJ, Demorest CM. 1978. Reproduction of captive wild carnivores. In: Fowler ME (Ed.). Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co. pp. 667-706.

Sunquist M. 1992. The ecology of the ocelot: the importance of incorporating life history traits into conservation plans. Memorials del Simposio Organizado por Fudeci 1991:117-128.

Sunquist M, Sunquist F. 2002. Wild cats of the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 120-130.

Sunquist M, Sunquist F. 2009. Felidae. In: Wilson DE, Mittermeier RA (Eds.). Handbook of the mammals of the world: Volume 1. Carnivores. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 144-145.

Sunquist M, Sunquist F, Daneke DE. 1989. Ecological separation in a Venezuelan llanos carnivore community. In: Redford KH, Eisenberg JF (Eds.). Advances in neotropical mammalogy. Gainesville, Florida: The Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. pp. 197-232.

Tewes ME. 1986. Ecological and behavioral correlates of ocelot spatial patterns. PhD Thesis. University of Idaho.

Trolle M, Kery M. 2003. Estimation of ocelot density in the Pantanal using capture-recapture analysis of camera-trapping data. Journal of Mammalogy 84(2):607-614.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: Leopardus pardalis [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Oct 09].

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2010. Ocelot recovery plan (Leopardus pardalis) Draft First Revision. Albuquerque, New Mexico: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 170 pp..The ocelot: Leopardus pardalis. Retrieved 9 November 2011 from

Weller SH, Bennett CL. 2001. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 71:67-79.

Werdelin L 1985. Small Pleistocene felines of North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 5:194–210.

Wozencraft WC. 2005. Order Carnivora. In: Wilson DE, Reeder, DM. (Eds.). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 539.

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