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History of Managed Care
- Animal collectors Baron Friedrich von Falz-Fein, of Askaniya Nova, and first Duke of Bedford, Carl Hagenbeck captured the newly discovered horses for their collections.
- 53 Mongolian wild horses brought to Europe between 1899 and 1902.
- Takhis purchased by Baron Falz-Fein produced 37 offspring.
- A few were given to western zoos
- Vast majority remained at Askanya Nova, where they all died during World War II.
- Only 26 animals survived in zoos, and of these only 11 were reproductive.
- A 12th founder was imported from the wild in 1947.
- Creation of first studbook by Dr. Erna Mohr in 1957 based on her knowledge of animals in Berlin, Hamburg and Halle
- Studbook published annually after 1958 by Jiri Volf of Prague Zoo.
- 228 animals in managed care between 1899 and 1958
- Breeding programs in the U.S., Europe, and Asia, including Chinese and Mongolian breeding and reintroduction programs.
- More than 130 foals born at San Diego Zoo Safari Park since 1974 (ZIMS 2020)
Husbandry at San Diego Zoo Safari Park
(Amanda Lussier, personal communication, 2020)
- Hardy animals
- Do well in very cold climates
- Still very wild compared to domestic horses (even in managed care)
- Important to keep hooves and body weight healthy
- Large area for roaming/herd movements
- Structures for shade and protection against inclement weather
- Grasses for grazing and to prevent erosion on slopes
- Bermuda hay
- Other types of hay for enrichment/play
- Browse, such as acacia, in smaller amounts
- Carrots as treats
- Other treats offered during training
- Very social
- Complex, dynamic social hierarchy
- Engage in mutual grooming
- Live in herds comparable in size to wild herds
- Closely monitored to increase genetic diversity in managed care populations
Enrichment and training
- Environmental enrichment
- Water, sprinklers, and ice
- Soil for rolling and play
- Grass for grazing
- Tactile training
- Brushes and back scratchers used to acclimate horses to human touch
- Important for hood trimming, health checks, and providing medical care
A Przewalski's horse enjoys ice on a hot day at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park.
Native to colder regions of Asia, Przewalski's horses enjoy standing in sprinkler sprays and playing with ice.
Image credit: Photo by Amanda Lussier. © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.
A Foal Named Kurt
Kurt, the world’s first cloned Przewalski’s horse.
The foal, born to a domestic surrogate mother, is a clone of a male Przewalski’s horse whose DNA was cryopreserved 40 years ago at the San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Frozen Zoo®.
Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.
Boyd & Houpt (1994)
Wakefield et al. (2006)
SDZWA Library Links
Fact Sheet Index
Fact sheet index, San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library
Home page, San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library
Email the librarians at firstname.lastname@example.org