African Wild Ass
Wild asses show different social organization depending on the environment. (Moehlman 1998)
No permanent bonds between Equus africanus adults; live in arid habitats small unstable groups of variable composition. (Klingel 1998) (Moehlman 2002)
In desert habitats, stallions tolerate other males in their territory, but prevent access to the mares. (Klingel 1990)
Wild asses are territorial in their mating habits; the stallion attempts to keep other stallions away from mares within its territory. (Klingel 1990)
Males attempt to control access to a critical resource - water - in order to have access to females. (Groves 2002)
Foals engage in many play behaviors; like frolicking, running, and chasing.
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Browning & Scheifele (2001)
Klingel (1990, 1998)