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African Wild Ass (Equus africanus) & Domesticated Donkey (Equus asinus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Agusti J, Anton M. 2005. Mammoths, sabertoths, and hominidis: 65 million years of mammalian evolution in Europe. New York: Columbia University Press.

Beja-Pereira, A. P. England, N. Ferrand, S. Jordan, A. Bakhiet, M. Abdalla, M. Mashkour, J. Jordana, P. Taberlet, G. Luikart 2004. African origins of the domestic donkey.

Bennett, D. 1980. Stripes do not a zebra make, part I: a cladistic analysis of Equus. Systematic Zoology 2:272-287.

Blench, R. and K. Macdonald 2000. A history of donkeys, wild asses, and mules in Africa. In: R. Blench and K. MacDonald, (Eds.) The Origins and Development of African Livestock: Archaeology, Genetics, Linguistics and Ethnography. Routledge. pp. 339-355.

Browing, D. P. Scheifele 2001. Vocalization of Equus asinus: the hees and haws of donkey brays. Acoustical Society of America Journal 115(5):2485-2485.

Chosniak, I. C. Stevens, M. Demment, A. Shkolnik 1989. Factors determining the digestive efficiency of the domesticated donkey (equus asinus asinus). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology. 74:1:1-6.

Corbet, G. and Clutton-Brock, J. 1984. Appendix: taxonomy and nomenclature. In: Mason, I. Ed.), Evolution of Domesticated Animals. Longman, London, pp. 434-438.

Churcher, C. 1982. Oldest ass recovered from Olduvai Gorge. Tanzania, and the origin of asses. Journal of Paleontology 56:1124-1132.

Clutton-Brock, J. 1981. Domesticated Animals from early times. University of Texas Press, Austin and British Museum (Natural History), London.

_______________1992 Horse Power: A History of the Horse and the Donkey in Human Societies. USA: Harvard University Press.

_______________1999. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cambridge University Press.

Forstén, A. 1988. Middle Pleistocene replacement of Stenoid horses by Caballoid horses - ecological implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 65:23-33.

__________1989. Horse diversity through the ages. Biological Review 64:279-304.

Froehlich, D. 2002. Quo vaids eohippus? The systematics and taxonomy of the early Eocene equids (Perissodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 134(2):141-256.

Gentry, A. 2006. A nomenclatural review (of Mammal Species of the World. a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2005). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 63: 215-219.

Gentry, A., J. Clutton-Brock, C. P. Groves, 2004. The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives. Journal of Archaeological Science 31: 645-651.

Grinder, M., P. Krausman, R. Hoffmann 2006. Equus asinus. in: Mammalian Species 794:1-9.

Groves, C. 1974. Horses, Asses, and Zebras in the Wild. Ralph Curtis Books, Hollywood, Florida.

_________ 1986. The taxonomy, distribution, and adaptations of recent equids. In: R. Meadow and H. Uerpmann (eds.), Equids in the Ancient World. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany.

_________ 1995. On the nomenclature of domestic animals. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 52(2):137-141 [PDF]

_________ 2002. Taxonomy of Living Equidae. In: Moehlman, P. (ed) Equids: Zebras, Asses and Horses. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group. IUCN World Conservation Union.

Groves, C. and O. Ryder 2000. Systematics and phylogeny of the horse. In: A.V. Bowling and A. Ruvinsky (eds.) The Genetics of the Horse. CABI Publishing. UK and USA pp. 1-24

Grubb, P. 2005. Order Perissodactyla. In: Wilson, D. and D. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. pp: 629-630.

Hooker, J. 2008. The beginning of the equoid radiation. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 112:(1) 29-63.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (2003). "Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia):conserved Opinion # 2027 (Case 3010). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 60(1) 2003.

Klingel, H. 1990. Horses. In: Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. McGraw-Hill Publishing pp. 557-597.

_________1998. Observations on social organization and behavior of African and Asiatic Wild Asses (Equus africanus and Equus hemionus). Applied Animal Behavior Science 60(1998):103-113.

Lamoot, I. J. Callebaut, E. Demeulenaere, C. Vandenberghe, M. Hoffman 2005. Foraging behavior of donkeys grazing in a coastal dune area in temperate climate conditions. Applied animal behaviour science 92(1-2)93-112.

McDonnell, S. 2002. Equid play ethogram. Applied animal behavior science 78:263-290.

___________ 2003. A Practical Field Guide to Horse Behavior. Blood-Horse Publishers, Lexington, Kentucky.

Moehlman, P. 1998. Feral asses (Equus africanus): intraspecific variation in social organization in arid and mesic habitats. Applied animal behaviour science 60:171-195

Moehlman PD,  Kebede F, Yohannes H. 2015. Equus africanus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019.2; e.T7949A45170994 [species assessed 2014 Sep 08;page accessed 2019 Aug 20].

Moehlman PD, King ARB, Kebede F. 2016. Status and conservation of threatened equids. In: Wild equids: ecology, management, and conservation (Ramson JI, Kaczensky, eds.). Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 167-186.

Nowak, R. M., 1999. Walker's mammals of the world. 6th edition. Vol. II. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

____________ 2002. Status and Action Plan for the African Wild Ass (Equus africanus). In: Moehlman, P. (ed) Equids: Zebras, Asses and Horses. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group. IUCN World Conservation Union.

Oakenfull, E. A., H. Lim, O. Ryder 2000. A survey of equid mitochondrial DNA: implications for the evolution, genetic diversity and conservation of Equus. Conservation Genetics 1(4):341-355.

Orlando L., Metcalf, J. L. Alberdi, M. T. Telles-Antunes M. Bonjean D., Otte M. et al. 2009. Revising the recent evolutionary history of equids using anccient DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(51): 21754–21759. 10.1073/pnas.0903672106

Ryder, O. 2009. Rhinoceroses, tapirs, and horses (Perissodactyla). in The Timetree of Life. Hedges, S. and S. Kumar (Eds.) Oxford University Press.

Rossel, S., F. Marshall, J. Peters, T. Pilgram, M. Adams. D. O'Connor 2008. Domestication of the donkey: timing, processes, and indicators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(10)3715-3720.

Starkey, P. and M. Starkey 1997. Regional and world trends in donkey populations. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA). [PDF]

Steiner CC, Ryder OA 2011. Moledcular phylogeny and evolution of the Perissodactyla. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163L1289-1303

Thiemann, A. and N. Bell 2001. The peculiarities of donkey respiratory disease. In: Lekeux P. (ed) Equine Respiratory Diseases. International Veterinary Information Service (, Ithaca, New York, USA.

UNEP. 2020. Equus africanus. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]; [accessed 2020 Nov 24].

Vilà C., J. Leonard, . A. Beja-Pereira 2006. Equid domestication. In: M. Zeder, D. Bradley, D. Emshwiller E. Smith (Eds.), Documenting Domestication. University of California Press. pp. 342-353..

Weinstock, J., E. Willerslev, A. Sher, W. Fong, S. Ho, D. Rubenstein, J. Storer, J Burns, L. Martin, C. Bravi, A. Prieto, D. Froese, E. Scott, L. Xulong 2005. Evolution, systematics, and phylogeography of Pleistocene horses in the New World: a molecular perspective. Public Library of Science Biology (PLoS Biology) 3 (8):1-7.e241

Yang, F., B. Fu, P. O'Brien, W. Nie, O. Ryder, M. Ferguson-Smith 2004. Refined genome-wide comparative map of the domestic horse, donkey and human based on cross-species chromosome painting: insight into the occasional fertility of mules. Chromosome Research 12: 65-76.

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