Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) Fact Sheet, 2014
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Family: Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys: baboons, macaques, and vervet monkeys)
Species: Papio hamadryas * (Linnaeus, 1758) - Hamadryas baboon
* General consensus is held among experts on baboon forms, but with broad disagreement over division of species within the genus.
Pelage:Adult male: mantle of hair reaching to the hips; bright pink or reddish face with whitish cheek tufts; large, bright red hind-end surrounded by white tufts of hair. Adult female: no mantle; short, brown hair; bright red hind-end; vaginal swelling coinciding with onset of estrous. Infant: hair black to 6 months of age, then brown
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Horn of Africa and southwestern Arabia; principally in Ethiopia; regionally extinct, non-native Egyptian population
Habitat: Subdesert, arid brushland, steppe, plain, savannah; Associated with areas having vertical cliff faces (on which they sleep)
IUCN Status: Least Concern; widespread and abundant; no major range-wide threats
CITES Appendix: Appendix II
Locomotion: Walks with four limbs. Gait swaggering. Runs as if galloping.
Activity Cycle: Sleep on rock faces at night; congregate near cliffs around sunrise before undertaking daily foraging marches, returning to
Social Groups: Highly organized social units; 3 primary levels: troops (c.100) containing several bands (30-90 individuals) comprised of many one-male units (OMU's). Most interactions are between the male leader of an OMU, females within the "harem" and their offspring.
Diet: Primarily vegetarian; consume seeds, roots, berries, leaves, and flowers. Raid agricultural lands. Opportunistically take insects and occasionally prey on hare or dik-dik antelope.
Predators: Humans and domestic dogs; potentially lion, leopards, hyenas, jackals, and cheetah.
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
Reproduction: Single offspring (c. 600-900 g)
Gestation: c. 6 months
Birth Interval: 18-36 months
Age at Weaning: c. 1 year
Longevity: c. 20 years in wild; c. 30 years in zoos
Feature Facts: Deified by ancient Egyptians; native to the Horn of Africa and southwestern Arabia. The only baboon in which males maintain a harem (one-male-unit, OMU); males mate solely with females in their OMU. Males weigh 40-45 lb, females 20-24 lb; striking appearance of male (a mantle of hair reaching to the waist) used as a means for distinguishing it from other baboon species within its range. Complex social hierarchy within troops. Foraging as a group during the day; primarily vegetarian. Sleep on vertical rock cliffs at night.
About This Fact Sheet
© 2014 San Diego Zoo Global. Updated October 2014.
How to cite: Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) Fact Sheet, 2014. c2014. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/hamadryasbaboon.
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2014 Sep 15)
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