Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas)
Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.
Family: Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys: baboons, macaques, and vervet monkeys)
Species: Papio hamadryas* (Linnaeus, 1758) - Hamadryas baboon
* General consensus is held among experts on baboon forms, but with broad disagreement over division of species within the genus.
Pelage:Adult male: mantle of hair reaching to the hips; bright pink or reddish face with whitish cheek tufts; large, bright red hind-end surrounded by white tufts of hair. Adult female: no mantle; short, brown hair; bright red hind-end; vaginal swelling coinciding with onset of estrous. Infant: hair black to 6 months of age, then brown
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Horn of Africa and southwestern Arabia; principally in Ethiopia; regionally extinct, non-native Egyptian population
Habitat: Subdesert, arid brushland, steppe, plain, savannah; Associated with areas having vertical cliff faces (on which they sleep)
IUCN Status: Least Concern (2016 assessment)
CITES Appendix: Appendix II
Populations in the Wild: stable or increasing
Locomotion: Walks with four limbs. Gait swaggering. Runs as if galloping.
Activity Cycle: Sleep on rock faces at night; congregate near cliffs around sunrise before undertaking daily foraging marches, returning to
Social Groups: Highly organized social units; 3 primary levels: troops (c.100) containing several bands (30-90 individuals) comprised of many one-male units (OMU's). Most interactions are between the male leader of an OMU, females within the "harem" and their offspring.
Diet: Primarily vegetarian; consume seeds, roots, berries, leaves, and flowers. Raid agricultural lands. Opportunistically take insects and occasionally prey on hare or dik-dik antelope.
Predators: Humans and domestic dogs; potentially lion, leopards, hyenas, jackals, and cheetah.
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
Reproduction: Single offspring (c. 600-900 g)
Gestation: c. 6 months
Birth Interval: 18-36 months
Age at Weaning: c. 1 year
Longevity: c. 20 years in wild; c. 30 years in zoos
© 2014-2020 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. IUCN Status updated Oct 2020.
How to cite: Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) Fact Sheet. c2014-2020. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/ factsheets/hamadryasbaboon.
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2014 Sep 15)
Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to email@example.com.