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Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) Fact Sheet: Distribution & Habitat


Endemic distribution

  • Horn of Africa and southwestern Arabia (Al-Safadi 1994; Biquand et al. 1992; Jolly 1993; Kamal et al. 1994; Kummer 1968b; Kummer et al. 1981)
      • In Africa: portions of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan
      • Principal populations in Ethiopia
    • In Arabia: Saudi Arabia, Yemen

Non-native, Egyptian distribution

  • Regionally extinct
  • Established by ancient Egyptians (Kummer 1995)
    • Originated from legendary land of Punt; according to historical myth
    • Genetic comparison of mummified remains and modern populations may establish location


Diverse range of habitats

  • Subdesert, arid brushland, steppe, plain, and savannah
  • Associated with high, vertical cliffs across most of their range (Biquand et al. 1992; Kummer 1968b)

Botanical landscape

  • Often areas with acacia and opuntia cactus (Biquand et al. 1992; Kummer 1968b)
  • Rarely with tall trees (Kummer 1968b)

Dependent on water

  • Though found in regions with little annual rainfall (4 in portions of Saudi Arabia) (Biquand et al. 1992)

Altitudinal range

  • 0-2,600 m (0-8,450 ft) (Biquand et al. 1992)
  • To 3000 m (9,843 ft) in Saudi Arabia (Biquand et al. 1992)


  • Intermingle and hybridize with olive baboon (P. anubis) on western edge of  range, and with yellow baboon (P. cynocephalus) on southern edge (Kummer 1968b)

Distribution Map

hamadryas baboon distribution map

Hamadryas Baboon distribution.

Adapted from according to IUCN fact sheet. Click here or on map for detailed distribution (IUCN)

Page Citations

Al-Safadi (1994)
Biquand et al. (1992)
Jolly (1993)
Kamal et al. (1994)
Kummer (1968b)
Kummer (1995)
Kummer et al. (1981)

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