Tend to not defend their nest or area around themselves very aggressively
Displays of aggression (Rooth 1965)
- Bill-fighting: both individuals aggressive; face each other and try to bite the head/beak area of opponent
- Chasing: one chases another; retreating bird stretches neck out straight; chaser pecks at tail end of other.
- Threatening: face each other with outstretched necks and open mouths, sometimes with growling vocalizations.
- Mate protection: If a mated pair comes in contact with another, the male will become aggressive, defending the female.