Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance logo
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library logo

Eastern Blue-tongued Skink (Tiliqua scincoides) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

Bibliography

Abbate F, Latella G, Montalbano G, Guerrera MC, Germanà GP, Levanti MB. 2009. The lingual dorsal surface of the blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua scincoides). Anat. Histol. Embryol. 38:348–350. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0264.2009.00952.x.

Abramjan A, Bauerová A, Somerová B, Frynta D. 2015. Why is the tongue of blue-tongued skinks blue? Reflectance of lingual surface and its consequences for visual perception by conspecifics and predators. Sci. Nat. 102:42. doi:10.1007/s00114-015-1293-4.

Amey AP, Couper PJ, Shea GM. 2005. Fatal intra-specific aggression in free-ranging blue-tongued lizards Tiliqua scincoides (Scincidae). Herpetofauna 35:73–75.

Australian Government, Department of Environment and Energy. Legislation: Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Dep. Environ. Energy. [accessed 2018 Mar 2]. http://www.environment.gov.au/.

Bartholomew GA, Tucker VA, Lee AK. 1965. Oxygen consumption, thermal conductance, and heart rate in the Australian skink Tiliqua scincoides. Copeia 1965:169–173. doi:10.2307/1440719.

Cabanac M, Hammel T, Hardy JD. 1967. Tiliqua scincoides: temperature-sensitive units in lizard brain. Science 158:1050–1051. doi:10.1126/science.158.3804.1050.

Carpenter CC, Murphy JB. 1978. Tongue display by the common bluetongue (Tiliqua scincoides) Reptilia, Lacertilia, Scincidae. J. Herpetol. 12:428–429. doi:10.2307/1563633.

Christian KA, Webb JK, Schultz TJ. 2003. Energetics of bluetongue lizards (Tiliqua scincoides) in a seasonal tropical environment. Oecologia 136:515–523. doi:10.1007/s00442-003-1301-9.

Cogger HG. 2014. Genus Tiliqua. In: Reptiles & amphibians of Australia. 7th ed. Collingwood (VIC, Australia): CSIRO Publishing; p. 686–691.

Cooper WE. 1994. Chemical discrimination by tongue-flicking in lizards: A review with hypotheses on its origin and its ecological and phylogenetic relationships. J. Chem. Ecol. 20:439–487. doi:10.1007/BF02064449.

Cooper WE. 2000. Food chemical discriminations by the omnivorous scincid lizards Tiliqua scincoides and Tiliqua rugosa. Herpetologica 56:480–488.

Cronin L. 2014. Eastern blue-tongued lizard. In: Cronin’s key guides: Australian reptiles & frogs. Crows Nest (NSW, Australia): Allen & Unwin; p. 153.

Drane CR, Webb GJW. 1980. Functional morphology of the dermal vascular system of the Australian lizard Tiliqua scincoides. Herpetologica 36:60–66.

Dutson G, Dutson L. 2016. Microhabitat niche differentiation in sympatric eastern blue-tongued lizard Tiliqua scincoides and blotched blue-tongued lizard Tiliqua nigrolutea in Melbourne, Victoria. Vic. Nat. 133:55–58.

Graves BM, Halpern M. 1991. Discrimination of self from conspecific chemical cues in Tiliqua scincoides (Sauria: Scincidae). J. Herpetol. 25:125–126. doi:10.2307/1564814.

Gray JE. 1831. New Holland Tiliqua, Tiliqua Whiti [sic]. A synopsis of the species of the Class Reptilia. In: Griffith E and E Pidgeon, editors. The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, member of the Institute of France, &c. &c. &c. with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed. Volume 9. London (UK): Whittaker, Treacher, and Co; p. 67. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/109356#page/74/mode/1up

Grove PB. 1981. Webster’s third new international dictionary of the English language, unabridged. Springfield (MA): G. & C. Merriam Company.

Hammel HT, Caldwell FT, Abrams RM. 1967. Regulation of body temperature in the blue-tongued lizard. Science 156:1260–1262. doi:10.1126/science.156.3779.1260.

Hauschild A. 2004. The role of the genus Tiliqua in the daily life of the Aborigines: myths, totem and food resource. In: Hitz R, Shea G, Hauschild A, Henle K, Werning H, editors. Blue-tongued skinks: contributions to Tiliqua and Cyclodomorphus. Münster (Germany): Matthias Schmidt Publications; p. 24–26.

Hitz R. 2004. Complications observed during pregnancy and birth in blue-tongued skinks. In: Hitz R, Shea G, Hauschild A, Henle K, Werning H, editors. Blue-tongued skinks: contributions to Tiliqua and Cyclodomorphus. Münster (Germany): Matthias Schmidt Publications; p. 53–67.

Hitz R, Shea G, Hauschild A, Henle K, Werning H, editors. 2004. Blue-tongued skinks: contributions to Tiliqua and Cyclodomorphus. Münster (Germany): Matthias Schmidt Publications.

Hobden C. 2001. Nocturnal activity of a diurnal skink, the eastern blue-tongue Tiliqua scincoides. Herpetofauna 31:136–137.

Hobden C. 2005. Predation of a striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii by an eastern blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua scincoides). Herpetofauna 35:35–36.

Horner P. 2004. The northern blue-tongued skink, Tiliqua scincoides intermedia Mitchell, 1955. In: Hitz R, Shea G, Hauschild A, Henle K, Werning H, editors. Blue-tongued skinks: contributions to Tiliqua and Cyclodomorphus. Münster (Germany): Matthias Schmidt Publications; p. 161–168.

Hoser RT. 1989. Eastern bluetongue Tiliqua scincoides. In: Australian reptiles & frogs. Sydney (Australia): Pierson & Co; p. 111–112.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System database (ITIS) [Internet]. TSN 208919. [accessed 2018 Feb 06]. http://www.itis.gov

Koenig J, Shine R, Shea G. 2001. The ecology of an Australian reptile icon: How do blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua scincoides) survive in suburbia? Wildl. Res. 28:214–227.

Koenig J, Shine R, Shea G. 2002. The dangers of life in the city: patterns of activity, injury and mortality in suburban lizards (Tiliqua scincoides). J. Herpetol. 36:62–68. doi:10.2307/1565803.

Le Souëf D. 1918. The blue-tongued lizard. Vic. Nat. 35:15.

Lint KC. 1958. Australian trip un-forgettable...collection unmatched. ZOONOOZ XXXI:3–7.

Main AR, Bull MC. 1996. Mother–offspring recognition in two Australian lizards, Tiliqua rugosa and Egernia stokesii. Anim. Behav. 52:193–200. doi:10.1006/anbe.1996.0164.

Mancera K, Murray P, Gao Y, Lisle A, Phillips C. 2014. The effects of simulated transport on the behaviour of eastern blue tongued lizards (Tiliqua scincoides). Anim. Welf. 23:239–249. doi:10.7120/09627286.23.3.239.

Mancera K, Murray P, Lisle A, Dupont C, Faucheux F, Phillips C. 2017. The effects of acute exposure to mining machinery noise on the behaviour of eastern blue-tongued lizards (Tiliqua scincoides). Anim. Welf. 26:11–24. doi:10.7120/09627286.26.1.011.

Northern Territory Government. Territory Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (legislation database). North. Territ. Legis. [accessed 2018 Mar 2]. https://legislation.nt.gov.au/Legislation/TERRITORY-PARKS-AND-WILDLIFE-CONSERVATION-ACT.

Phillips C, Roffey J, Hall E, Johnson R. 2016. Sex identification in the eastern blue-tongued lizard (Tiliqua scincoides White, ex Shaw, 1790) using morphometrics. Aust. Vet. J. 94:256–259. doi:10.1111/avj.12429.

Phillips JA. 1986a. Unraveling the hypervolume. ZOONOOZ LIX:16–17.

Phillips JA. 1986b. Ontogeny of metabolic processes in blue-tongued skinks, Tiliqua scincoides. Herpetologica 42:405–412.

Pianka ER. 1969. Sympatry of desert lizards (Ctenotus) in Western Australia. Ecology 50:1012–1030. doi:10.2307/1936893.

Price-Rees SJ, Brown GP, Shine R. 2010. Predation on toxic cane toads (Bufo marinus) may imperil bluetongue lizards (Tiliqua scincoides intermedia, Scincidae) in tropical Australia. Wildl. Res. 37:166. doi:10.1071/WR09170.

Price-Rees SJ, Brown GP, Shine R. 2013. Spatial ecology of bluetongue lizards (Tiliqua spp.) in the Australian wet-dry tropics. Austral Ecol. 38:493–503. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2012.02439.x.

Price-Rees SJ, Brown GP, Shine R. 2014. Activity patterns and movements of free-ranging bluetongue lizards (Tiliqua scincoides intermedia and Tiliqua multifasciata) in the Australian Wet-Dry Tropics. J. Herpetol. 48:298–305. doi:10.1670/12-256.

Price-Rees SJ, Lindström T, Brown GP, Shine R. 2014. The effects of weather conditions on dispersal behaviour of free-ranging lizards (Tiliqua, Scincidae) in tropical Australia. Van Damme R, editor. Funct. Ecol. 28:440–449. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12189.

Price-Rees SJ, Webb JK, Shine R. 2013. Reducing the impact of a toxic invader by inducing taste aversion in an imperilled native reptile predator. Anim. Conserv. 16:386–394. doi:10.1111/acv.12004.

Pyron R, Burbrink FT, Wiens JJ. 2013. A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes. BMC Evol. Biol. 13:93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-93.

Queensland Government. Queensland legislation: Nature Conservation Act 1992. Qld. Gov. [accessed 2018 Mar 02]. https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/html/inforce/current/act-1992-020.

Rose AB. 1974. Gut contents of some amphibians and reptiles. Herpetofauna 7:4–8.

Schafer S. 1987. Beards and blue-tongues. ZOONOOZ LII:14.

Scheelings TF. 2015. Morbidity and mortality of reptiles admitted to the Australian Wildlife Health Centre, Healesville Sanctuary, Australia, 2000–13. J. Wildl. Dis. 51:712–718. doi:10.7589/2014-09-230.

Shaw GM. 1992. The systematics and reproduction of bluetongue lizards of the genus Tiliqua (Squamata: Scincidae) [Ph.D.]. [Sydney]: University of Sydney. [accessed 2018 Feb 21]. http://adc.library.usyd.edu.au.

Shea G. 1981. Notes on the reproductive biology of the eastern bluetongue skink, Tiliqua scincoides. Herpetofauna 7:16–23.

Shea GM. 1993. The anatomist John Hunter (1728–1793), the eastern bluetongue skink Tiliqua scincoides (Squamata: Scincidae) and the discovery of herbivory in skinks. Arch. Nat. Hist. 20:303–306. doi:10.3366/anh.1993.20.3.303.

Shea GM. 2004a. Synonymy of the genera Cyclodomorphus and Tiliqua. In: Hitz R, Shea G, Hauschild A, Henle K, Werning H, editors. Blue-tongued skinks: contributions to Tiliqua and Cyclodomorphus. Münster (Germany): Matthias Schmidt Publications; p. 247–254.

Shea GM. 2004b. History and systematics. In: Hitz R, Shea G, Hauschild A, Henle K, Werning H, editors. Blue-tongued skinks: contributions to Tiliqua and Cyclodomorphus. Münster (Germany): Matthias Schmidt Publications; p. 11–23.

Shea G. 2017. Tiliqua scincoides: The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2017.3; e.T109481538A109481555. Cambridge (UK): International Union for Conservation of Nature. [species assessed 2017 Feb 20; page accessed 2018 Feb 07]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T109481538A109481555.en.

Shea GM, Hutchinson MN. 1992. A new species of lizard (Tiliqua) from the Miocene of Riversleigh, Queensland. Mem. Qld. Mus. 32:304–310.

Shine R, Doody JS. 2011. Invasive species control: understanding conflicts between researchers and the general community. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9:400–406. doi:10.1890/100090.

Shine R, Koenig J. 2001. Snakes in the garden: an analysis of reptiles “rescued” by community-based wildlife carers. Biol. Conserv. 102:271–283. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00102-1.

Slavens FL and K Slavens. 2000. Tiliqua scincoides. In: Reptiles and amphibians in captivity: breeding, longevity, and inventory, current January 1, 1999. Seattle (WA): Woodland Park Zoological Gardens; p. 246-247.

Smith TL, Kardong KV, Bels VL. 1999. Prey capture behavior in the blue-tongued skink, Tiliqua scincoides. J. Herpetol. 33:362–369. doi:10.2307/1565632.

Stanbury P, Phipps G. 1980. Blue-tongued lizard Tiliqua scincoides. In: Australia’s animals discovered. Sydney: Pergamon Press; p. 96-98.

Swanson S. 1976. Common blue tongue Tiliqua scincoides. In: Lizards of Australia. London: Angus & Robertson Publishers; p. 32–34.

Turner GS. 2014. Burrow-use by herpetofauna of the Werribee-Keilor plains. Vic. Nat. 131:72–83.

UNEP. 2018. Species+: Tiliqua scincoides (White, 1790). [accessed 2018 Feb 21]. https://www.speciesplus.net/#/taxon_concepts/3284/legal.

Unverzagt T. 2004. The continuous keeping and breeding of Tiliqua scincoides scincoides (Hunter, 1790) in the terrarium. In: Hitz R, Shea G, Hauschild A, Henle K, Werning H, editors. Blue-tongued skinks: contributions to Tiliqua and Cyclodomorphus. Münster (Germany): Matthias Schmidt Publications; p. 169–176.

Weigel J. 1988. Blotched bluetongue skink Tiliqua nigrolutea, eastern bluetongue skink T. scincoides (and other bluetongues). In: Care of Australian reptiles in captivity. Gosford (NSW, Australia): Reptile Keepers Association; p. 112.

Werning H. 2004. Husbandry, status and protection - bluetongues past and present. In: Hitz R, Shea G, Hauschild A, Henle K, Werning H, editors. Blue-tongued skinks: contributions to Tiliqua and Cyclodomorphus. Münster (Germany): Matthias Schmidt Publications; p. 234–246.

White J. 1790. The scincoid, or skinc-formed lizard, Lacerta scincoides. In: Journal of a voyage to new South Wales, with sixty-five plates of non descript animals, birds, lizards, serpents, curious cones of trees and other natural productions. London: Debrett; p. 242–243. [accessed 2018 Feb 06]. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/181420#page/324/mode/1up.

Wilson S. 2012. Australian lizards: a natural history. Collingwood (VIC, Australia): CSIRO Publishing.

Wilson S, Swan G. 2017. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia. 5th ed. London (England): Reed New Holland Publishers.

Wrobel M. 2004. Tiliqua scincoides. In: Elsevier’s dictionary of reptiles. London (England): Elsevier; p. 485.

ZIMS (Zoological Information Management System). 2018. [updated 2018 Feb 14; accessed 2018 Feb 21]. https://www.species360.org/

Additional Internet Resources

Blue-tongued Skink

Blue-tongued skink with tongue tip to nose

Eastern blue-tongued skink, Tiliqua scincoides

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

SDZWA Library Links