Skip to Main Content
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance logo
San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance Library logo

Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources

Okapi Okapia johnstoni


AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Benirschke, K.and L. Hagey 2006. Should the okapi be listed as a giraffid species? Zoologische Garten 76:197-198.

Bodmer, R. and K..Gubista.1988. A note on the social structure of free-ranging okapi. Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia, December (80):11-18.

Bodmer, R. and G. Rabb.1985. Behavioral development and mother-infant relations in the forest giraffe. Zoom op Zoo. Royal Zoologie d'Anvers, p. 33-51.

Bodmer R. and G. Rabb. 1992. Okapia johnstoni. Mammalian Species: 422, 1-8.

Clough, L. (Topic Editor) 2008. Okapi Faunal Reserve, Democratic Republic of Congo. United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (Content Partner). In: Cleveland, C.J. (Ed) Encyclopedia of Earth. Washington, D.C., Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment.

Crissey, S., E. Dierenfeld, J. Kanselaar, K. Leus, and J. Nijboer 2001. Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) SSP Feeding Guidelines. American Association of Zoos and Aquariums.

Colbert, E. H. 1938. The Relationships of the Okapi. Journal of Mammology,19(1): 47-64.

Dagg, A. 1960. Gaits of the giraffe and okapi. Journal of Mammalogy. 41(2):182.

Dagg, A. and J. Foster. 1982 . The Giraffe: Its Biology, Behavior, and Ecology. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Updated edition of 1976 publication. 210 pp.

De Bois, H. 1988. The studbook population of the okapi: some remarks of the current demographic and population genetic status. Acta Zoologica et Antverpiensia, 80:65-84.

De Bois, H., A. Dhondt, and B. Van Puijenbroek. 1990.  Effects of inbreeding on juvenile survival of the okapi in captivity. Biological Conservation, 54:147-155.

Estes, R. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. California: University of California Press,  p. 201.

Franklin WL. 2011. Family Camelidae. In: Wilson DE & Mittermeier RA (eds). Handbook of Mammals of the World Vol. 2. Hoofed Mammals. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. pp. 206-246.

Gijzen, A. and S. Smet. 1974. Seventy years okapi. Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia. June(59):8-18.

Grzimek, H. 1990. The okapi. In: Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Vol. 2 1990. McGraw- Hill, New York. pp. 255-266

Hart, J. 2013. Okapia johnstoni, Okapi. In: Mammals of Africa. Vol. 6. Kingdon, J and M Hoffmann (editors). p. 110-115.

Hart, J. 1992. Forage selection, forage availability, and use of space by okapi, a rainforest giraffe in Zaire. Ongules/ Ongulates 91. France: S.F.E.P.M.- I.R.G.M.  p. 217-221.

Hart, T. and J. Hart. 1992. Between sun and shadow. Natural History: 101(11)

Hart, T., and J. Hart. 1988 Tracking the rainforest giraffe: Animal Kingdom 91(1): 26-32.

Hart, J. and T. Hart. 1988 A summary report on the behaviour, ecology and conservation of the okapi (Okapia johnstoni) in Zaire: Acta Zoologica Et Pathologica Antverpiensia 80: 19-28.

Hart, J. and T. Hart. 1989. Ranging and feeding behaviour of okapi (Okapia johnstoni) in the Ituri Forest of Zaire: food limitation in a rain-forest herbivore? In: Jewell, P. and G. Maloiy (Eds.) The Biology of Large African Mammals in Their Environment. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 61: 31-50.

Hart, T. and J. Hart. 1992. Between sun and shadow. Natural History: 101(11)

Hart, T. and R. Mwinyihali 2001.Armed Conflict and Biodiversity in Sub-Saharan Africa:The Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Washington, D.C.: Biodiversity Support Program.

International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 2008. IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species. Gland: IUCN 

IEA (Institute of Applied Ecology) 1998.  Okapia johnstoni.  In African Mammals Databank - A Databank for the Conservation and Management of the African Mammals Vol 1 and 2.  Bruxelles: European Commission Directorate. 

Kingdon J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals.  New York: Academic Press.

Krümpel NF, Quinn A, Grange S. 2015. The distribution and population status of the elusive okapi, Okapia johnstoni. Afr. J. Ecol. 53: 242-245. doi:10.1111/aje.12221.

Lindsey, S., M. Green, C. Bennett 1999. The Okapi: Mysterious Animal of Congo-Zaire. University of Texas Press. 131 pp.

Mallon, D., Kümpel, N., Quinn, A., Shurter, S., Lukas, J., Hart, J.A., Mapilanga, J., Beyers, R. & Maisels, F. 2015. Okapia johnstoni. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018-2; e.T15188A51140517 [species assessed 2015 Jul 25; page accessed 2019 Feb 12].

Meester, J. and H. Setzer, (Eds) The Mammals of Africa. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press, p. 13.

Mitchell, G. and J. Skinner 2003. On the origin, evolution and phylogeny of giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 58(1):51-73.

Montgelard C, Catzeflis FM, Douzery E. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S rRNA mitochondrial sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14(5):550-559.

Prothero, D. and R. Schoch 2002. Horns, Tusks, and Flippers: The Evolution of Hoofed Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore and London. pp. 60-72.

Rabb, G. 1978. Birth, early behavior and clinical data on the okapi. Acta Zoologica Antverpiensia,  71: 93-105.

Shuker, K. 1993. The Lost Ark: New and Rediscovered Animals of the Twentieth Century. London: Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 16-20.

Sidney, J. 1965.  The past and present distribution of some African ungulates. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 30:1-397.

Simmons, R. and L. Scheepers 1999. Winning by a neck: sexual selection in the evolution of giraffe. American Naturalist 148(5): 771-786.

Spinage, C.1968. The Book of the Giraffe. London: Collins, p. 143-161.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Feb 12].

Additional Internet Resources


Okapi Calf

Okapi calf


Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

SDZWA Library Links