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Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Albignac, R. 1981. Lemurinae social and territorial organisation in a north-western Malagasy forest (restricted area of Ampijoroa). In: A.B. Chiarelli, and R.S. Corruccini eds. Primate Behavior and Sociobiology, pp. 25-29. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Alterman, L., G.A. Doyle, and M.K. Izard. 1995. Creatures of the Dark: the Nocturnal Prosimians. New York: Plenum Press. 571 pp.
Anapol, F. and w.L. Jungers. 1982. A division of labor in muscles: Functinal comparison of medial gastrocneumius and soleus in Lemur and Loris. American Journal of  Physical Anthropology 57:166-167 (abstract).

Anapol, F. and W.L. Jungers. 1985. Interlimb coordination and gait in the brown lemur ( Lemur fulvus) and the talapoin monkey (Miopithecus talapoin). American Journal of  Physical Anthropology, 67(2):89-97.

Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, et al. 2014. Lemur catta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 20 February 2015.

Andriamampianina, J. and A. Pyrieras. 1972. Les reserves naturelles integrales de Madagascar. C. R. Conference Int. Conserv. Nat. et Resources a Madagascar. I.U.C.N., Morges:103-123.

Andriamiandra, A. and Y. Rumpler. 1968. Role de la testosterone sur le determinisme des glandes brachiales et antebrachiales chez le Lemur catta. C. R. Soc. Biol. 162:1651-1655.

Andrianarivo, A.J. 1981. Etude comparee de l'organisation sociale chez Microcebus coquereli. Unpublished dissertation, University of Madagascar, Antanarivo.

Andriantsiferana, R. and R. Rahandraha. 1973a. Influence de quelques facteurs intrinseques (espece, age, gestation et lactation) sur la consommation alimentaire de Microcebus murinus et Microcebus murinus rufus. Comptes Rendus de l' Academie des Sciences. 277:1893-1896.

Andriansiferana, R. and T. Rahandraha. 1973b. Variations saisonnieres de la temperature centrale du Microcebe (Microcebus murinus). Comptes Rendus de l' Academie des Sciences. 2215-2218.

Andriansiferana, R. and T. Rahandra. 1974. Effets du sejour au froid sur le Microcebe (Microcebus murinus Miller, 1777). Comptes Rendus de l' Academie des Sciences.  278:3099- 3102.

Andriansiferana, R., Y. Rarijaona, and A. Randrianaivo. 1974. Observations sur la reproduction du Microcebe Microcebus murinus (Miller, 1777) en captivite a Tananarive. Mammalia, 38:234-243.

Appert, O. 1968. La distribution geographique des lemuriens diurnes de la region du Mangoky au sud-ouest de Madagascar. Bull. Acad. Malgache, 44 (for 1966):43-45.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Bergeron, J.A. and J. Buettner-Janusch. 1970a. Hematology of prosimian primates. Galago, Lemur and Propithecus. Folia Primatologica, 13(2):133-165.

Bergeron, J.A. and J. Buettner-Janusch. 1970b. Hematology of prosimian primates. II. A comparative study of Lemuriformes in captivity in Madagascar and North Carolina. Folia Primatologica, 13:306-313.

Bishop, A. 1964. Use of the hand in lower primates. In J. Buettner-Janusch, ed. Evolutionary and Genetic Biology of Primates, 2:133-225. New York: Academic Press.

Bourliere, F. and A. Petter-Rousseaux. 1953. L'homeothermie imparfaite de certains prosimiens. C. R. Soc. Biol., 147:1594-1595.

Bourliere, F., J.J. Petter, and A. Petter-Rousseaux. 1956a. Le dimorphisme sexuel de la glande sous-angulo-maxillaire d'avahi laniger (Gmelin). Mem. Inst. Sci. Madagascar (Ser. A), 10:299-302.

Bourliere, F., J.J. Petter, and A. Petter-Rousseaux. 1956b. Variabilite de la temperature centrale chez les lemuriens. Memoires de l' Institute Scientifique de Madagascar (ser A), 10:303-304.

Buettner-Janusch, J. and A. Hamilton. 1979. Chromosomes of Lemuroformes. IV. Karyotype evolution in Lemur fulvus collaris (E. Geoffroy, 1812). American Journal of  Physical Anthropology, 50:363-365.

Buettner-Janusch, J. and R.L. Hill. 1965. Evolution of hemoglobin in primates. In V. Bryson, and H.J. Vogel, eds. Evolving Genes and Proteins , pp. 167-181. New York: Academic Press.

Buettner-Janusch, J. and J.B. Twichell, 1961. Alkali-resistant haemoglobins in prosimian primates. Nature, 192:669.

Carleton, A. 1936. The limb bones and vertebrae of the extinct lemurs of Madagascar. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 110:281-307.

Cartmill, M. 1972. Arboreal adaptations and the origin of the order Primates. In R. Tuttle, ed. Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates, pp. 97-122. Chicago: Aldine Atherton.

Cartmill, M. 1974. Pads and claws in arboreal locomotion. In F.A. Jenkins, ed. Primate Locomotion, pp. 45-83. New York: Academic Press.

Cartmill, M. 1975. Strepsirhine basicranial structures and the affinities of the Cheirogaleidae. In W.P. Luckett and F.S. Szalay, eds. Phylogeny of the Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach, pp. 313-354. New York: Plenum Press.

Cartmill, M. 1978. The orbital mosaic in prosimians and the use of variable traits in systematics. Folia Primatologica, 30(2):89-114.

Cartmill, M. 1979. The volar skin of primates: its frictional characteristics and their functional significance. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 50:497-509.

Charles-Dominique, P. 1978. Solitary and gregarious prosimians: evolution of social structures in primates. In: D.J. Chivers, and K.A. Joysey, eds. Recent Advances in Primatology, 3:139-149. London: Academic Press.

Charles-Dominique, P., et al., eds. 1980. Nocturnal Malagasy Primates: Ecology, Physiology and Behavior. Academic Press, New York.

Charles-Dominique, P. and C.M. Hladik. 1971. Le Lepilemur du sud de Madagascar: ecologie, alimentation et vie sociale. Terre et La Vie, 25:3-66.

Charles-Dominique, P. and R. D. Martin. 1970. Evolution of lorises and lemurs. Nature, 227:257-260.

Chu, E.H.Y. and M.A. Bender. 1962. Cytogenetics and evolution of primates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 102:253-266.

Chu, E.H.Y. and B.A. Swomley. 1961. Chromosomes of lemurine lemurs. Science, 133:1925-1926.

Clark, W.E.G. 1931. The brain of Microcebus murinus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of  London, pp.1-24.

Clark, W.E.G. 1945. A note on the palaeontology of the lemuroid brain. Journal of  Anatomy, 79:123-126.

Conley, J.M. 1975. Notes on the activity pattern of Lemur fulvus. Journal of Mammalogy, 56:712-715.

Conroy, G.C. and J.R. Wible. 1978. Middle ear morphology of Lemur variegatus: some implications for primate paleontology. Folia Primatologica, 29(2):81-85.

Constable, I.D., R.A. Mittermeier, J.I. Pollock, J. Ratsirarson, and H. Simons. 1985. Sightings of aye-ayes and red ruffed lemurs on Nosy Mangabe and the Masoala Peninsula. Primate Conservation, 5:59-62.

Doyle, G.A., R.D. Martin. 1979. The Study of Prosimian Behavior, New York: Academic Press.

Drenhaus, U. 1975. Ein Beitrag zur Taxonomie der Lemuriformes Gregory 1915 unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Gattung Lepilemur  (Geoffroy 1851). Ph.D. Thesis, Christian-Albrechts- Universitat, Kiel.

Eaglen, R.H. and K.J. Boskoff. 1978. The birth and early development of a captive sifaka, Propithecus verreauxi cocquereli. Folia Primatologica, 30(3):206-219.

Ehrlich, A., J.L. Fobes, and J.E. King. 1976. Prosimian learning capacities. Journal of Human Evolution, 5:599-617.

Evans, C.S., and R.W. Goy. 1968. Social behavior and reproductive cycles in captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Journal of  Zoology, 156:181-197.

Fiedler, W. 1959. Ueber das baculum des Cheirogaleinae. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 163:57-63.

Filhol, H. 1895. Observations concernant les Mammiferes contemporains des Aepyronis a Madagascar. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.  1:2-14.

Flacourt, E. 1658. Histoire de la grande Isle Madagascar. Avec une relation de ce qui s'est passe es annees 1655,1656 & 1657, non encor veue par la premiere impression. Troyes, N. Oudot; Paris, Pierre L'Amy. pp 1-202 (Histoire);pp203-471 (Relation).

Foerg, R. 1978. Das Verhalten von Lemur variegatus in Gefangenschaft. M.A. Thesis, University of Tubingen.

Foerg, R. 1982. Reproduction in Cheirogaleus medius. Folia Primatologica, 39: 49-62.

Ganzhorn, J.U. 1987. A possible role of plantations for primate conservation in Madagascar. American Journal of Primatology, 12:205-215.

Ganzhorn, J.U. 1988. Food partitioning among Malagasy primates. Oecologia, 75(3):436-450.

Gillette, R.G., R. Brown, P. Herman, S. Vernon, and J. Vernon. 1973. The auditory sensitivity of the lemur. American  Journal of  Physical Anthropology, 38(2):365-370.

Godfrey, L.R. 1977. Structure and function in Archaeolemur and Hadropithecus (subfossil Malagasy lemurs): The postcranial evidence. Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University.

Goodman, S.M., and O. Langrand. 1996. A high mountain population of the ring-tialed lemur Lemur catta on the Andringitra Massif, Madagascar. Oryx, 30(4): 259-268.

Gould L, Sauther ML. 2016. Going, going, gone...Is the iconic ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) headed for imminent extirpation? Primate Conservation 30:89-101.
Grandidier, G. 1899. Description des ossements de lemuriens disparus. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris), 5:272-276, 344-348.

Gotch, AF. 1995. Latin names explained: a guide to the scientific classification of reptiles, birds, and mammals. London (GB): Blandford.

Gould, L, RW Sussman, and ML Sauther. 2003. Demographic and life-history patterns in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar: a 15-year perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 120(2):182-194.

Grand, A. 2015. Ring-tailed Lemur Lemur catta North American Regional Studbook. Myakka City (FL): Lemur Conservation Foundation. 132 p.

Grandidier, G. 1900. Note sur des ossements d'adimaux disparus. Bull Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris), 6:214-219.

Grandidier, G. 1902. Observations sur les lemuriens disparus de Madagascar: Collections Alluaud, Gaubert, Grandidier. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris), 8:497-502.

Grandidier, G. 1905. Recherches sur les lemuriens disparus et en particulier ceux qui vivaient a Madagascar. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Paris)(4 ser), 7:1-142.

Grandidier, G. 1929. Une variete du Cheiromys madagascariensis actuel et un nouveau Cheiromys subfossile. Bull. Acad. Malgache, 11 (for 1928):101-107.

Gregory, W.K. 1915. 1. On the relationship of the Eocene lemur Notharctus, to the Adapidae and other primates. 2. On the classificatin and phylogeny of the Leuroidea. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 26:419-446.

Gregory, W.K. 1920. On the structure and relations of Notharctus, an American Eocene primate. Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. (n.s.) 3:49-241.

Groves, C.P. and Tattersall, I. 1991. Geographical variation in the fork-marked lemur Phaner furcifer (Primates, Cheirogaleidae). Folia Primatologica, 56(1):39-49.

Groves, C.P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 350 pp.

Grzimek, B., ed. 1984. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, v. 10. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., Inc.

Grzimek, B., ed. 1990. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Animals, v. 2.  New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gunther, A.1875. Notes on some mammals from Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London,  78-80.

Hamilton, A.E. and J. Buettner-Janusch. 1977. Chromosomes of Lemuriformes. III. The genus Lemur: Karyotypes of species, subspecies, and hybrids. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 293:125-159.

Hamilton, A.E., I. Tattersall, R.W. Sussman, and J. Buettner- Janusch. 1980. Chromosomes of Lemuriformes. VI. Comparative karyology of Lemur fulvus: a G-banded karyotype of Lemur fulvus mayottensis (Schlegel, 1866). International Journal of Primatology, 1:81- 93.

Harcourt, C.S. 1987. Brief trap/retrap study of the brown mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus) Folia Primatology, 49:209-211.

Harcourt, C.S., and J. Thornback. 1990. Lemurs of Madagascar and the Comoros: The IUCN Red Data Book.  Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Hovarth J, Weisrock D, Embry S, Fiorentino I, Balhoff J, Kappeler P, Wray G, Willard H, Yoder A. 2008. Development and application of a phylogenomic toolkit: resolving the evolutionary history of Madagascar's lemurs. Genome Research. 18(3):489-499.

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Jenkins, P.D. 1987. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History) and Elsewhere in the British Isles. Part IV: Suborder Strepsirrhini, Including the Subfossil Madagascan Lemurs and Family Tarsiidae. London: British Museum (Natural History) 189 pp.

Jolly, A. 1966. Lemur behavior: A Madagascar Field Study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jolly, A. 1985. The evolution of primate behavior. New York: Macmillan Pub.

Jolly, A. 1988. Lemur Survival. In: K. Benirschke, ed. Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining Populations, pp 71-98. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Klopfer, P.H., and K.J.  Boskoff. 1979. Maternal behavior in prosimians. In: G.A. Doyle, and R.D. Martin, eds. The study of prosimian behavior, pp. 123-156. New York: Academic Press.

LaFleur M, Clarke TA, Reuter K, Schaeffer T. 2016. Rapid decrease in populations of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in Madagascar. Folia Primatol 87:320-330. doi:10.1159/000455121.

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Marsh, C.W. and R.A. Mittermeier, eds. 1987. Primate Conservation in the Tropical Forest, pp 335-350. New York :Alan R. Liss, Inc.

Martin, R.D. 1972. A preliminary field study of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus J.F. Miller 1777). Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, Supplement 9:43-89.

Martin, R.D., G.A. Doyle, and A.C. Walker eds. 1974. Prosimian Biology. London: Duckworth.

Meier, B. and Albignac, R. (1991). Rediscovery of Allocebus trichotis Gunther 1875 (Primates) in northeast Madagascar. Folia Primatologica, 56(1):57-63.

Mertl-Milhollen, A. S. 1979. Olfactory demarcation of territorial boundaries by a primate - Propithecus verreauxi. Folia Primatologica, 32: 35-42.

Mertl-Milhollen, A., et al., 1979. Population and territory stability of the Lemur catta at Berenty, Madagascar. Folia Primatologica, 31:106-122.

Milton, K. 1978. Role of the upper canine and P2 in increasing the harvesting efficiency of Hapalemur griseus (Link 1795). Journal of Mammalogy, 59: 188-190.

Mitchell, C., J. Vernon, and P. Herman. 1971. What does the lemur really hear?. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 50(2):710-711.

Mitchell, C., et al. 1970. Pure-tone auditory behavioral thresholds in three species of lemurs. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 48(2):531-535.

Mittermeier, R.A., W.R. Konstant, M.E. Nicoll, O. Langrand, and the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. 1992. Lemurs of Madagascar. An Action Plan for their Conservation: 1993-1999. 58 pp.

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Mivart, St. George. 1864. Notes on the crania and dentition of the Lemuridae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 611-648.

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Nakamichi, M., and N. Koyama. 1997. Social relationships among ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in two free ranging troops at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology, 18:73-93.

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