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Common Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Awde N. 2002. Swahili-English, English-Swahili dictionary and phrasebook. New York (NY): Hippocrene Books.

Bosma A. 1978. Chromosomal G-banding pattern in the wart hog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Suidae, Mammalia) and its implications for the systematic position of the species. Genetica. 49:15-19.

Breitwisch R. 1992. Tickling for ticks. Natural History. 101(3):56-63.

Cambefort Y, I H. 1991. Dung beetle population biology. In: Hanski I, Cambefort Y, editors. Dung beetle ecology. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press. p. 36-50.

Carpaneto G, Mazziotta A, Ieradi M. 2010. Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an savanna. Environmental Entomology. 39(6):1756-1764. DOI: 10.1603/EN09249

Child G, Roth H, Kerr M. 1968. Reproduction and recruitment patterns in warthog (Phacochoerus aethipicus) populations. Mammalia. 32:6-29.

Claxton J, Faye J, Rawlings P. 1992. Trypanosome infections in warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) in Gambia. Veterinary Parasitology. 41(3-4):179-187.

Clough G, Hassam A. 1970. A quantitative study of the daily activity of the warthog in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. East African Wildlife Journal. 8(1):19-24.

Coetzee H. 2010. Observations of southern ground-hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri grooming common warthog Phacochoerus africanus. African Journal of Ecology. 48(4):1131-1133. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01203.x

Cumming D. 1975. A field study of the ecology and behavior of warthog. Museum memoir No. 7. Salisbury (ZW): National Museums & Monuments of Rhodesia.

Cumming D. 2008. Phacochoerus africanus In: IUCN redlist of threatened species. Ver 2013.2. Cambridge (GB): International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; [accessed 2014 May 29].

Cumming D. 2013. Phacochoerus africanus, common warthog. In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M, editors. Mammals of Africa. London (GB): Bloosmbury. p. 54-60.

d'Errico F, Backwell L, Villa P, Degano I, Lucejko J, Bamford M, Higham T, Colombini M, Beumont P. 2012. Early evidence of San material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109(33):13214-13219.

De Jong YA, Butynski TM. 2014. Distribution, abundance, ecology, and conservation status of desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) in northern Kenya. Washington (DC): Unpublished report to the National Geographic Society

de Jong YA, Cumming D, d'Huart J, Butynski T. 2016. Common warthog Phacochoerus africanus. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019.1; e.T41768A109669842 [species assessed 2016 Feb 17; page accessed 2019 Apr 03]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T41768A44140445.en.

Doke C. 1927. Lamba folk-lore. Memoirs of the American Folk-lore Society. 20.

Estes R. 1991. The behavior guide to African mammals: including hoofed mammals, carnivores, primates. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press.

Estes, RD. 1993. The safari companion: a guide to watching African mammals including hoofed mammals, carnivores, and primates. Post Mills (VT): Chelsea Green Publishing Company.

Estes R, Cumming D, Hearn G. 1982. New facial glands in domestic pig and warthog. Journal of Mammalogy. 63(4):618-624.

Gongora J, Cuddahee R, do Nascimento F, Palgrave C, Lowden S, Ho S, Simond D, Damayanti C, White D, Tay W et al. 2011. Rethinking the evolution of extant sub-Saharan African suids (Suidae, Artiodactyla). Zoologica Scripta. 40(4):327-335. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2001.00480.x

Gotch, AF. 1995. Latin names explained: a guide to the scientific classification of reptiles, birds, and mammals. London (GB): Blandford.

Grobler JH, Charsley GW. 1978. Host preference of the Yellow-Billed Oxpecker Buphagus africanus in the Rhodes Matopos National-Park, Rhodesia. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 8(4):169-170.

Groves C, Harris J. 2013. Family Suidae: pigs, hogs. In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M, editors. Book title. London (GB): Bloomsbury. p. 25.

Grubb P. 1993. The Afrotropical suids Phacochoerus, Hylochoerus, and Potamochoerus. In: WLR O, editor. Book title. Gland (CH): International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). p. 66-75.

Grubb P. 2013. Genus Phacochoerus, warthogs. In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M, editors. Mammals of Africa. London (GB): Bloosmbury. p. 50.

Grubb P, d'Huart J-P. 2013. Phacochoerus aethiopicus, desert warthog. In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M, editors. Mammals of Africa. London (GB): Bloosmbury.

Harris J. 2013a. Subfamily Suinae - pigs, hogs. In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M, editors. Mammals of Africa. London (GB): Bloosmbury. p. 25-26.

Harris J. 2013. Tribe Phacochoerini, warthogs. In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M, editors. Mammals of Africa. London (GB): Bloosmbury. p. 49.

Hayward MW, Hayward MD. 2012. Waterhole use by African fauna. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 42(2):117-127. DOI:

Howell, AB. 1944. Speed in animals: their specialization for running and leaping. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press.

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Kalema-Zikusoka G, Bengis RG, Michel AL, Woodford MH. 2005. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 72(2):145-151. DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v72i2.210

Mason D. 1985. Postnatal growth and physical condition of warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in Zululand. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 15(3):89-97.

Mason D. 1990. Juvenile survival and population structure of blue wildebeest and warthogs in the Central Region of the Kruger National Park during the mid-summer drought of 1988-1989. Koedoe. 33(1):29-45.

Meijaard E, d'Huart J, Oliver W, editors. 2011. Handbook of the mammals of the world: hoofed mammals. Barcelona (ES): Lynx Ediciones. p. 248-291.

Mellen I. 1952. The natural history of the pig: its evolutionary status, antiquity, body, brain, and behavior, and its effect on people. New York (NY): Exposition Press.

Melliss C. 1991. Lion-hunting in Somali-land: also an account of "pigsticking" the African wart-hog. New York (NY): St. Martin's Press.

Melletti M, Meijaard E. 2018. Ecology, conservation and management of wild pigs and peccaries. Cambridge (MA): Cambridge University Press.

Nunn CL, Ezenwa VO, Arnold C, Koenig WD. 2011. Mutualism or parasitism? Using a phylogenetic approach to characterize the oxpecker-ungulate relationship. Evolution. 65(5):1297-1304. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01212.x

Plantan T, Howitt M, Kotze A, Gaines M. 2013. Feeding preferences of the red-billed oxpecker, Buphagus erythrorhynchus: a parasitic mutualist? African Journal of Ecology. 51(2):325-336. DOI: 10.1111/aje.12042

Plesner-Jensen S, Siefert L, Okori J, Clutton-Brock T. 1999. Age-related participation in allosuckling by nursing warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). Journal of Zoology. 248:443-449.

Radke R. 1985. Zur Okologie und ethologie des warzenschweins (P. aethiopicus, Pallas) [thesis]. [Berlin (DE): Free University of Berlin. In German with English abstract.

Radke R, Niemitz C. 1989. Contribution to the functions of scent marking behavior in the warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus). Journal of Mammalian Biology. 54(2):111-122.

Randi E, d'Huart J-P, Lucchini V, Aman R. 2002. Evidence of two genetically deeply divergent species of warthog, Phacochoerus africanus and P. aethiopicus (Artiodactyla: Suiformes) in East Africa. Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 67(2):91-96. DOI: 10.1078/1616-5047-00013

Sazima I. 2010. What coatis and mongooses have in common. Biota Neotropica. 10(3):457-461.

Sclater W. 1900. The mammals of South Africa. Vo. 1: Primates, Carnivora and Ungulata. London (GB): RH Porter.

Seiffert E, Kingdon J. 2013. Order Cetartiodactyla - pigs, hippopotamuses, chevrotain, giraffes, deer, bovids. In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M, editors. Mammals of Africa. London (GB): Bloosmbury. p. 22-23.

Smith L. 2011. Common warthog Phacochoerus africanus North American regional studbook. Sioux Falls (SD): Great Plains Zoo.

Smith, L. 2014. Common warthog Phacochoerus africanus North American regional studbook. Sioux Falls (SD): Great Plains Zoo.

Smith EW, Dale AM. 1920. The Ila-speaking people of Northern Rhodesia, vol. 2. London (GB): MacMillan and Co.

Smith L, Groome C. 2011. Population analysis and breeding and transfer plan: common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) AZA species survival plan yellow program. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo.

Somers M. 1997. Activity patterns and activity budgets of warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. African Journal of Ecology. 35:73-79.

Swanepoel M, Schulze E, Cumming DHM. 2016. A conservation assessment of Phacochoerus africanus. In: Child MD, Raimondo D, Do Linh San E, Roxburgh L, Davies-Mostert H (eds). The Red List of Mammals of South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho. South Africa: South African National Biodiversity Institute and Endangered Wildlife Trust.

UNEP. 2019. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Jul 10].

Vercammen P, Habets K. 2006. Husbandry guidelines for warthog (Phacochoerus africanus). Sharjah (AE): Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife.

Vercammen P, Mason D. 1993. The warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus and P. aethiopicus). In: Oliver WLR, editor. Pigs, peccaries and hippos: status survey and action plan. Gland (CH): IUCN. p. 75-84.

Villa P, Soriano S, Tsanova T, Degano I, Highham T, d'Errico F, Backwell L, Lucejko L, Colombini M, Beaumont P. 2012. Border cave and the beginning of the Later Stone Age in South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109(33):13208-13213.

Weeks P. 2000. Red-billed oxpeckers: vampires or tickbirds? Behavioral Ecology. 11(2):154-160. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/11.2.154

White A. 2010. A pigheaded compromise: do competition and predation explain variation in warthog group size? Behavioral Ecology. 21(3):485-492. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arq009

White A, Cameron E. 2009. Communal nesting is unrelated to burrow availability in the common warthog. Animal Behaviour. 77:87-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.08.030

White A, Cameron EZ, Peacock M. 2010. Grouping patterns in warthogs, Phacochoerus africanus: is communal care of young enough to explain sociality. Behaviour. 147(1):1-18. DOI: 10.1163/000579509x12459309054841

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