Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.
Species: Loxodonta africana - African savanna or African bush elephant
**Males heavier than females.
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Savanna elephant: central & western Africa
Forest elephant: central & eastern Africa
Savanna elephant: grassy plains & bushlands
Forest elephant: rainforest
IUCN Status: Vulnerable
CITES Appendix: Appendix I; some populations listed on Appendix II, depending upon location
Population in Wild: Approximately 415,000 individuals estimated by systematic surveys; possibly an additional 117,000 in non-surveyed areas
|Activity Cycle: Diurnal and nocturnal. Feed 16 hours and sleep 4-5 hours.
Social Groups: matriarchal groups of 6-14
Diet: Herbivorous. Savanna elephants are considered "browsers" while forest elephants are more characteristically "grazers"
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
|Sexual Maturity: Males mature late, c. 12-15 years, compared with females that reach maturity c. 10-11 years of age.
Gestation: 22 months
Litter Size: A single calf.
Birth weight: 90-120 kg (198-265 lbs)
Age at Weaning: 2-3 years
Longevity: wild up to 60 years
|Feature Facts: The large, complex brain of an elephant is matched only by that of a primate or a cetacean.
Society Press: First Asian Elephants (Empress and Queenie) arrived at San Diego Zoo in 1923, ridden by Frank Buck and Harry Wegeforth from the Santa Fe Station to the Zoo. The Zoo’s first African elephant, baby Peaches arrived 9/21/58.
© 2008-2018 San Diego Zoo Global. Minor updates in May 2015. Taxonomic update July 2016. Population estimates updated Sep 2018.
How to cite: African Elephants (Loxodonta africana and L. cyclotis) Fact Sheet. c2008-2018. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ african_elephant.
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed)
Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org.