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Species: Loxodonta africana - African savanna or African bush elephant
**Males heavier than females.
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Savanna elephant: central & western Africa
Forest elephant: central & eastern Africa
Savanna elephant: grassy plains & bushlands
Forest elephant: rainforest
Vulnerable (2008 assessment) (Blanc 2008)
Appendix I (UNEP 2018); some populations listed on Appendix II (UNEP 2018), depending upon location
Population in Wild: Approximately 415,000 individuals estimated by systematic surveys; possibly an additional 117,000 in non-surveyed areas
|Activity Cycle: Diurnal and nocturnal. Feed 16 hours and sleep 4-5 hours.
Social Groups: matriarchal groups of 6-14
Diet: Herbivorous. Savanna elephants are considered "browsers" while forest elephants are more characteristically "grazers"
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
|Sexual Maturity: Males mature late, c. 12-15 years, compared with females that reach maturity c. 10-11 years of age.
Gestation: 22 months
Litter Size: A single calf.
Birth weight: 90-120 kg (198-265 lbs)
Age at Weaning: 2-3 years
Longevity: wild up to 60 years
© 2008-2018 San Diego Zoo Global. Minor updates in May 2015. Taxonomic update July 2016. Population estimates updated Sep 2018.
How to cite: African Elephants (Loxodonta africana and L. cyclotis) Fact Sheet. c2008-2018. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ african_elephant.
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed)
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