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Freckled Duck (Stictonetta naevosa) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Berndt RM, Berndt CH, Stanton JE. 1993. A world that was. The Yaraldi of the Murray River and the Lakes, South Australia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.

Birdlife Australia. 2018. Freckled Duck. BirdLife Australia [accessed 2018 Aug 29].

Birdlife International. 2016. Stictonetta naevosa. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2018.1; e.T22679836A92831716 (species assessed 2016 Oct 01; page accessed 2018 Jul 20). doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22679836A92831716.en.

Braithwaite LW. 1976. Notes on the breeding of the Freckled Duck in the Lachlan River Valley. Emu. 76(3):127–132. doi:10.1071/MU9760127.

Braithwaite LW, Frith HJ. 1969a. Waterfowl in an inland swamp in New South Wales. 1. Habitat. CSIRO Wildl Res. 14(1):1–16. doi:10.1071/CWR9690001.

Braithwaite LW, Frith HJ. 1969b. Waterfowl in an inland swamp in New South Wales. 3. Breeding. CSIRO Wildl Res. 14(1):65–109. doi:10.1071/CWR9690065.

Briggs SV. 1982. Food habits of the Freckled Duck and associated waterfowl in north-western New South Wales. Wildfowl. 33:88–93.

Campbell AJ. 1899. On the trachea of the Freckled Duck of Australia (Stictonetta naevosa). Ibis. 41(3):362–364. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1899.tb01486.x.

Carboneras C, Kirwan GM. 2018. Freckled Duck (Stictonetta naevosa). In: Handbook of the birds of the world alive. Barcelona (Spain): Lynx Edicions. (del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J, Christie DA, de Juana E, editors.). [accessed 2018 Jul 20].

Chambers LE, Hughes L, Weston MA. 2005. Climate change and its impact on Australia’s avifauna. Emu. 105(1):1–20. doi:10.1071/MU04033.

Chapman A, Lane JAK. 1997. Waterfowl usage of wetlands in the south-east arid interior of western Australia 1992–93. Emu. 97(1):51–59. doi:10.1071/MU97005.

Clarke PA. 2017. Early indigenous practices of bird foraging in the Lower Murray, South Australia. Trans R Soc S Aust. 141(1):26–47. doi:10.1080/03721426.2016.1266571.

Corrick AH. 1982. Records of Freckled Duck in Victoria from December 1980 to July 1981 and the number shot on opening day of the 1981 duck season. Aust Bird Watch. 9:260–268.

Crome FHJ. 1985. An experimental investigation of filter-feeding on zooplankton by some specialized waterfowl. Aust J Zool. 33(6):849–862. doi:10.1071/ZO9850849.

Dingle H. 2004. The Australo-Papuan bird migration system: another consequence of Wallace’s Line. Emu. 104(2):95–108. doi:10.1071/MU03026.

Fitch WT. 1999. Acoustic exaggeration of size in birds via tracheal elongation: comparative and theoretical analyses. J Zool. 248(1):31–48. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1999.tb01020.x.

Frith HJ. 1964. The downy young of the Freckled Duck Stictonetta naevosa. Emu. 64(1):42–47. doi:10.1071/MU964042.

Frith HJ. 1965. Ecology of the Freckled Duck, Stictonetta naevosa (Gould). CSIRO Wildl Res. 10(1):125–139. doi:10.1071/CWR9650125.

Frith HJ. 1967. Freckled Duck Stroctonetta naevosa. In: Waterfowl in Australia. Honolulu (HI): East-West Center Press. p. 109–125.

Frith HJ, Braithwaite LW, McKean JI. 1969. Waterfowl in an inland swamp in New South Wales. 2. Food. CSIRO Wildl Res. 14(1):17–64. doi:10.1071/CWR9690017.

Fullagar PJ, Davey CC, Rushton DK. 1990. Social behaviour of the Freckled Duck Stictonetta naevosa with particular reference to the axle-grind. Wildfowl. 41:53–61.

Game Management Authority. 2016. Freckled Duck - not sure, don’t shoot. [accessed 2018 Aug 29].

Gaunt AS, Gaunt SLL, Prange HD, Wasser JS. 1987. The effects of tracheal coiling on the vocalizations of cranes (Aves; Gruidae). J Comp Physiol A. 161(1):43–58. doi:10.1007/BF00609454.

Gould J. 1848. Anas naevosa. In: The birds of Australia. London: R Taylor, JE Taylor. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.105698.

Grossek G. 2000. Freckled Duck Stictonetta naevosa. Victoria (Australia): Parks, Flora and Fauna Division, Department of Sustainability and Environment Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement Report No. 105.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) [Internet database]. Stictonetta naevosa. TSN 175230. [updated 2017 Nov 08; accessed 2018 Jul 20].

Jaensch R. 2003. Breeding by Freckled Duck Stictonetta naevosa in the Diamantina Channel Country. Sunbird. 33(1):24–28.

Johnsgard PA. 1961. Tracheal anatomy of the Anatidae and its taxonomic significance. Slimbridge (UK): The Wildfowl Trust Twelfth Annual Report. [accessed 2018 Aug 29].

Johnsgard PA. 1965. Observations on some aberrant Australian Anatidae. Slimbridge (UK): The Wildfowl Trust Sixteenth Annual Report.

Johnsgard PA. 2010. Tribe Stictonettini (Freckled Duck). In: Ducks, geese, and swans of the world. Lincoln (NE): University of Nebraska Press. p. 99–100; Map 32 (page unnumbered).

Kingsford RT, Curtin AL, Porter J. 1999. Water flows on Cooper Creek in arid Australia determine ‘boom’ and ‘bust’ periods for waterbirds. Biol Conserv. 88(2):231–248. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00098-6.

Kingsford RT, Porter JL. 1994. Waterbirds on an adjacent freshwater lake and salt lake in arid Australia. Biol Conserv. 69(2):219–228. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(94)90063-9.

Kingsford RT, Porter JL. 2009. Monitoring waterbird populations with aerial surveys - what have we learnt? Wildl Res. 36(1):29. doi:10.1071/WR08034.

Kingsford RT, Porter JL, Halse SA. 2012. National waterbird assessment. Waterlines Report Series No. 74, National Water Commission, Canberra.

Kingsford RT, Wong PS, Braithwaite LW, Maher MT. 1999. Waterbird abundance in eastern Australia, 1983–92. Wildl Res. 26(3):351–366. doi:10.1071/WR96062.

Lederer R, Burr C. 2014. Latin for bird lovers: over 3,000 bird names explored and explained. Portland (OR): Timber Press.

Lowe VT, Lowe TG. 1974. The Freckled Duck in Victoria. Aust Bird Watch. 1(5):175–181.

Loyn RH. 1991. Assessing and managing the impact of duck hunting in Victoria - a new approach. Wildfowl. 42:155–161.

Marchant S, Higgins PJ, editors. 1990. Stictonetta naevosa Freckled Duck. In: Handbook of Australian, New Zealand & Antarctic birds. Vol. 1: pelican to ducks. Melbourne (Australia): Oxford University Press. p. 1160–1173.

Murray CG, Loyn RH, Kasel S, Hepworth G, Stamation K, Hamilton AJ. 2012. What can a database compiled over 22 years tell us about the use of different types of wetlands by waterfowl in south-eastern Australian summers? Emu. 112(3):209–217. doi:10.1071/MU11070.

Norman FI, Norris KC. 1982. Some notes on Freckled Duck shot in Victoria, Australia, 1981. Wildfowl. 33:81–87.

Pizzey G, Knight F. 2012. Freckled Duck Stictonetta naevosa. In: The field guide to the birds of Australia. 9th Edition. Auckland (New Zealand): HarperCollinsPublishers. p. 28.

Scott P. 2018. Winging it: the beautiful birds of Walkabout Australia soar as stars in their own right. ZOONOOZ XCI:22–24.

Smith MJ, Scroggie MP, Schreiber ESG, McNabb E, Cheers G, Macak P, Loyn R, Ough K. 2009. Associations between salinity and use of non-riverine wetland habitats by diurnal birds. Emu. 109(3):252–259. doi:10.1071/MU08044.

Smith PJ, Pressey RL, Smith JE. 1994. Birds of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales. Biol Conserv. 69(3):315–338. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(94)90432-4.

Sun Z, Pan T, Hu C, Sun L, Ding H, Wang H, Zhang C, Jin H, Chang Q, Kan X, et al. 2017. Rapid and recent diversification patterns in Anseriformes birds: inferred from molecular phylogeny and diversification analyses. PLOS ONE. 12(9):e0184529. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0184529.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: Stictonetta naevosa [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 May 29].

Wood KA, Simcock RA. 1993. Birds of the Illawarra District, 1982–87. Emu. 93(3):137–144. doi:10.1071/MU9930137.

Worthy TH, Lee MSY. 2008. Affinities of Miocene waterfowl (Anatidae: Manuherikia, Dunstanetta and Miotadorna) from the St Bathans Fauna, New Zealand. Palaeontology. 51(3):677–708. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00778.x.

Additional Internet Resources

Freckled Duck

Freckled Duck swimming

A Freckled Duck's head appears triangular in side profile; its bill has a curved or "dished appearance."

Image location: Lake Wendouree, Victoria, Australia

Image credit: © Ed Dunens via Flickr. CC by 2.0; some rights reserved.

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