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Jaguar (Panthera onca) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


Abbitt, R., J. Scott, M. and D.S. Wilcove. 2000. The geography of vulnerability: incorporating species geography and human development into conservation planning. Biological Conservation. 96:169-175.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

de Almeida, A., 1990. Jaguar hunting in the Mato Grosso and Bolivia. Safari Press, CA.

Aranda, M. 2000. Huellas y otros rastros de los mamiferos grandes y medianos de Mexico. Instituto de Ecologia. A. C. Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico

Azevedo, F.C., and D. Murray, 2007. Spatial organization and food habits of jaguars (Panthera onca) in a floodplain forest. Biological Conservation 137:391-402.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (compilers and editors) 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Barry, J. C., 1987. Large carnivores (Canidae, Hyaenidae, Felidae) from Laetoli. In Leakey, M. and Harris, J. (Eds.), Laetoli: a Pliocene site in northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 235-258.

Brown, D. E., 1994. Biotic communities: southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Brown, D. E., and C., A. Lopez Gonzalez, Borderland jaguars - tigres de la frontera. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Camus. A., A. M. Grooters, R. E. Aquilar, 2004. Granulomatour pneumonia caused by Pythium insidiosum in a central American jaguar, Panthera onca. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 16(6):567-571.

Case, T. and M. Gilpin, 1974. Interference competition and niche theory. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, 71(8): 3073-3077.

Cat Specialist Group. For more information, see the IUCN Cat Specialist Group website

Childs, J. L., 1998. Tracking the felids of the borderlands. Printing Corner Press, El Paso, Texas.

Channell, R. and M.V. Lomolino, 2000. Dynamic biogeography and conservation of endangered species. Nature, 403: 84-86.

Choi, J.J., H.S. Yoo, J.Y. Park, Y.K. Kim, E. Kim, D. Y. Kim, 2002. Morganelliasis Pneumonia in a captive jaguar, Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38:1:199-201.

Crawshaw, R.G. and J. B. Quigley, 1991. Jaguar spacing, activity and habitat use in a seasonally flooded environment in Brazil, Journal Zoology, 223:357-370.

Eizirik, E., J. H. Kim , M. Menotti-Raymond, P.G. Crawshaw Jr., S.J. O'Brian, W.E. Johnson, 2001. Phylogeography, population history and conservation genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca, Mammalia, Felidae). Molecular Ecology 10 (1): 65-79.91

Emmons, L.., 1991. Jaguars, in Great Cats. ed. J. Seidensticker and S. Lumpkin, 116-123.123. Emmaus, PA; Rodale Press

Emmons, L., 1997. Neotropical rainforest mammals. 2nd Edition. University of Chicago Press. p. 168-9.

Farrell, L., J. Roman, M. Sunquist, 2000. Dietary separation of sympatric carnivores identified by molecular analysis of scats. Molecular Ecology, 9 (10):1583-1590

Fragoso CE, Rampim LE, Quigley H, Buhrke Haberfeld M, Ayala Espíndola W, Cabral Araújo V, Rodrigues Sartorello L, May Júnior JA. 2023. Unveiling demographic and mating strategies of Panthera onca in the Pantanal, Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy. 104(2):239–251. doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyac123.
Gotch, AF. 1995. Latin names explained: a guide to the scientific classification of reptiles, birds, and mammals. London (GB): Blandford.

Harmsen, B., R. Foster, S. Silver, I. Ostro, C. Doncaster 2009. Spacial and temporal interactions of sympatric jaguare (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) in a neotropical forest [PDF]. Journal of Mammalogy 90(3):612-620.

Hemmer, H. 1968. Report on a Hybrid Between Lion x Jaguar x Leopard - Panthera leo x Panthera onca x Panthera pardus.Säeugetierkundliche-Mitteilungen, 16(2): 179-182

Hemmer, H., Kahlke, R. Vekua, A. 2001. The Jaguar - Panthera once gombaszoegensis (Kretozoi, 1938) (Carnivora: Felidae) in the late Lower Pleistocene Akhalkalaki (South Georgia: Transcaucasia) and its evolutionary and ecological significance. Geobios 34, 475-486.

Hoogesteijn, R. and A. Hoogesteijn 2008. Conflicts between cattle ranching and large predators in Venezuela: could use of water buffalo facilitate felid conservation? [PDF] Oryx 42(1)132-138.​ 

Hoogesteijn, R. E. Mondolfi, A. Michelangeli, 1986. Observaciones sobre el estado de las poblaciones y las medidas legales para la conservaci ón del jaguar in Venezuela. In Wildlife management in Neotropical moist forests: Conservation status of the jaguar, international symposium, Manaus. Brazil, 30-74. Paris: International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation.

Hoogesteijn, R. and E. Mondolfi, 1992. The Jaguar. Armitano Editores C.A.

Hoogesteijn, R. and E. Mondolfi, 1996. Body mass and skull measurements in four jaguar populations, and observations on their prey base [PDF]. Bulletin of Florida Museum of Natural History, Biology Series, 39(6):195-219.

Hope, K., and S. Deem, 2006. Retrospective study of morbidity and mortality of captive jaguars (Panthera onca) in North America: 1982-2002.

Hsu, T.C., 1962. Idiograms of four wild cats. Mammology Chromosome Newsletter, 7:5

International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 2000. 2000 IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species. Gland: IUCN 

International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Species Survival Commission, Cat Specialist Group, 1996. "IUCN Cat Specialist Group - Jaguar"

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Assessed October 2008.

Jaguar Corridor Initiative. Downloaded May 31 2010

Janczewski, D. W. S Modi, J. C. Stephens, S.J. O'Brian, 1995. Molecular evolution of mitrochondrial 12S RNA and cytochrome b sequences in the Pantherine lineage of Felidae, Molecular Biology and Evolution 12(4):690-707.

Jędrzejewski W, Robinson HS, Abarca M, Zeller KA, Velasquez G, Paemelaere EAD, Goldberg JF, Payan E, Hoogesteijn R, Boede EO, et al. 2018. Estimating large carnivore populations at global scale based on spatial predictions of density and distribution – application to the jaguar (Panthera onca). PLOS ONE. 13(3):e0194719. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194719.

Johnson, W. and S.O' Brien, 1997. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-H Mitochondrial Genes. J. Molecular Evolution, 44:98-116

Johnson, W., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. & O"Brian, S., 2006, The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment. Science 311: 73-77.

Kolmstetter, C., L. Munson, E. Ramsay, Degenerative spinal disease in large felids, 2000. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 31(1): 15-19.

Larson, Shawn E., 1997. Taxonomic re-evauation of the jaguar. Zoo Biology, 16(2): 107-120.

Leal, S., A. Ravazzolo, 1998. Detection of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in wild felines from neotropical region by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Arquivos da Faculdade de Teterinaria UFRGS, 26(2)

Leite, M. R. Boulhousa, F. Galvao, L. Cullen, Jr., 2001. Conservation of Jaguars in the protected areas of Atlantic coastal forest, Brazil., in Medellin, R.A., C. Chetkiewicz, A. Rabinowitz, K.H. Redford, J. G. Robinson, E. Sanderson, and A. Taber, Jaguars in the new millenium. a status assessment, priotiry detection, and recommendations for the conservation of jaguars in the Americans. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico/Wildlife Conservation Society D. F.

Maffei, L., E. Cuellar, A. Noss, 2004. One thousand jaguars (Panthera onca) in Bolivia's Chaco? Camera trapping in the Kaa-Iya National Park. Journal Zoology, 262:295-304

McCain, E. , J. Childs, 2008. Evidence of resident jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southwestern United States and the implications for conservation. Journal of Mammalogy, 89(1)1-10.

McAloose, D., L. Munsion, D. Naydan, 2007. Histologic features of mammary carcinomas in zoo felids treated with melengestrol acetate (MGA) contraceptives.

Mondolfi, E. and R. Hoogesteijn, 1986. Notes on the biology and status of the jaguar in Venezuela. In: Cats of the world: biology, conservation, and management, Miller, S.D., and D. D. Everett, eds., pp. 85-123.

Murie, O. J. 1975. A Field Guide to Animal Tracks. Boston. p. 110.

Nielsen, J., J. M. Scott, and J. L. Aycrigg. 2001. Endangered species and peripheral population: cause for conservation. Edangered Species Update. 18:194-197.

Nowell, K. and P. Jackson, compilers and eds., 1996. Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Oesch, R. 1969. Fossil Felidae and Machairondontidae from Two Missouri Caves. Journal of Mammalogy 50(2):367-368.

Olson, E.R., R. Saborío & J. Carazo-Salazar (2019a). Age of the jaguar: A novel approach to evaluating the lifespan of a rare carnivore. Cat News 70: 36–38.

Patton, S., A. Rabinowitz, S. Randolph, S. Johnson, 1986. A coprological survey of parasites of wild neotropical felidae, Journal of Parasitology, 72(4):517-520.

Pecon-Slattery, J. and S.J. O'Brian. 1998. Patterns of Y and X chromosome DNA sequence divergence during the Felidae radiation. Genetics 148:1245-1255.

Peters, G. and M.H. Hast, 1994. Hyoid structure, laryngeal anatomy, and vocalization in felids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae). Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 59:87-104.

Pocock, R.I., 1908. Hybrid lion and leopard. The Field, April 18.

Pocock, R.I, 1908. The Field No. 2889, May 9.

Pocock, R.I., 1908. The Supposed Lion and Leopard Hybrid.

Pocock, R.I., 1939. The races of jaguar (Panthera onca). Novitates Zoologicae. Volume XLI. p. 406-422.

Polisar, J.D. 2000. Jaguars, pumas, their prey base, and cattle ranching: ecological perspectives of a management issue. PhD dissertation, University of Florida.

Polisar, J. I. Maxit, D. Scognamillo, L. Farrell, M. Sunquist, J. Eisenberg, 2003. Jaguars, pumas, their prey base, and cattle ranching: ecological interpretations of a management problem. Biological Conservation 109: 297-310.

Quigley, H. and P. Crawshaw, 1992. A conservation plan for the jaguar Panthera onca in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Biological Conservation 61:149-157

Quigley H. and P. Crawshaw PJ (2001) Reproduction, growth and dispersal of jaguars in the Pantanal region of Brazil. In the jaguar in the new millennium pp Ed. R. Medelin, K. Redford, Q Howard and A. Rabinoqitz. UNAM, Mexico City.

Quigley H, Foster R, Petracca L, Payan E, Salom R, Harmsen B. 2017. Panthera onca. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2018.1; e.T15953A123791436 [species assessed 2016 Aug 05; page accessed 2018 Oct 02. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T15953A50658693.en.

Rabinowitz, A. R., B. Nottingham, 1986. Ecology and behavior of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in Belize, Central America. Journal of Zoology, London (A)210:149-59.

Rabinowitz, A. R., 2000. Jaguar: One Man's Struggle To Establish The World's First Jaguar Preserve. Island Press.

Rabinowitz, A. R., 2010. Jaguars don't live here anymore. New York Times OpEd. January 24 2010. Downloaded May 31, 2010.

Rosas-Rosas, O. C., 2006. Ecological status and conservatin of jaguars in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Ph.D. dissertation, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces.

Sanderson, E. W., K. H. Redford, C. L. Chetkiewicz, R.A. Medellin, A.R. Rabinowitz, J.G. Robinson, A.B. Taber, 2002. Planning to save a species: the jaguar as a model. Conservation Biology (1):58.

Seymour, K. L. 1989. Panthera onca. Mammalian Species. No. 340, p. 1-9

Schaller, G.B., 1983 and J.M. Vasconcelos., 1978. Jaguar predation on capybara. Z. Säugetierk. 43:296-301.

Shuker, K. 1989. Mystery Cats of the World. Robert Hale: London. p. 173.

Scognamillo, d., I. Maxit, M. Sunquist, J. Polisar, 2003. Coexistence of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Felis concolor) in a mosaic landscape in the Venezuelan llanos. Journal of Zoology 259:269-279

Slaughter, B.H., R.H. Pine, and N.E. Pine, 1974. Eruption of cheek teeth in Insectivora and Carnivora. Journal of Mammology, 55:115-125.

Soares, J.N., M. Telles, R. R. Resende, L. Silveira, A.T. Jacomo, R. Morato, J.A. Diniz-Filho, E. Eizirik, R. Brondani, C. Brondani, 2006. Paternity testing and behavioral ecology: a case study of jaguars (Pathera onca) in Emas National Park, Central Brazil., Genetics and Molecular Biology, 29(4)

Soisalo, M. and S. Cavalcanti, 2006. Estimating the density of a jaguar population in the Brazilian Pantanal using camera-traps and capture-recapture sampling in combination with GPS radio-telemetry. Biological Conservation 129: 487-496.

Sunquist, M. and F. Sunquist, 2002. Wild cats of the world. pp. 305-317.

Turner, A., 1987. New fossil carnivore remains from the Sterkfontein hominid site (Mammalia:Carnivora). Annals of the Transvaal Museum 34: 319-347.

Turner, A. and M. Anton, 1997. The big cats and their fossil relatives. Columbia University Press, New York.

UNEP. 2019. Species+: Panthera onca [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Jan 29]. 

U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. Jaguar critical habitat deemed not prudent [PDF]. News Release July 13, 2006.

U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. Fish and Wildlife Service completes determination on jaguars [PDF]. News Release Jan. 17

Wozencraft, W.C., 2005. Order Carnivora. In: Wilson, D. and D. Reeder (eds) Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, 3rd ed., vol 1 Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, US pp. 532-548.

Weissengurber, G.E., G. Forstenpointner, G. Peters, A. Kubber-Heiss, W.T. Fitch, 2002. Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), and domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus). Journal of Anatomy 201(3): 195-209.

Weigl, R.. 2005. Longevity of animals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe 48. Stuttgart, Germany.

Wildt, D. E., C. Platz, P. K. Chakraborty, S.W. Seager, 1979. Oestrous and ovarian activity in a female jaguar (Panthera onca). Journal of Reproductive Fertility. 56(2); 555-8. 1979 Jul ;56 (2):555-8 383976

Wilson, D.E., and F. R. Cole, 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA

Wroe, S., C. McHenry, J. Thomason, 2004, Bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of a predatory behavior in fossil taxa. Proceedings of the Royal Society, pub. online [PDF].

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