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Plains Zebra (Equus quagga) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


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Bennett D. 1980. Stripes do not a zebra make, part 1: a cladistic analysis of Equus. Systematic Zoology. 29(3):272-287.

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Bishop AL, Bishop RP. 2013. Resistance of wild African ungulates to foraging by red-billed oxpeckers (Buphagus erythrorhynchus): evidence that this behaviour modulates a potentially parasitic interaction. African Journal of Ecology. 52(1):103-110. DOI: 10.1111/aje.12093

Breitwisch R. 1992. Tickling for ticks. Natural History. 101(3):56-63.

Briand Petersen J. 1972. An identification system for zebra (Equus burchellii, Gray). East African Wildlife Journal. 10:59-63.

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Bryden H. 1889. Kloof and karroo: sport, legend, and natural history in Cape Colony. London (GB): Longmans, Green and Co.

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Caro T, Izzo A, Reiner R, Walker H, Stankowich T. 2014. The function of zebra stripes. Nature Communications. 5(3535):1-10. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4535

Churcher C, Richardson M. 1978. Equidae. In: Maglio V, Cooke H, editors. Evolution of African Mammals. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press. p. 379-422.

Dean W, MacDonald I. 1981. A review of African birds feeding in association with mammals. Ostrich. 52:135-155. DOI: 10.1080/00306525.1981.9633599

DeLeon C. 1999. America's first zoostory: 125 years at the Philadelphia Zoo. Virginia Beach (VA): The Donning Company Publishers.

Doke C. 1927. Lamba folk-lore. Memoirs of the American Folk-lore Society. 20. 570 p.

Duncan P, Groves C. 2013. Genus Equus: asses, zebras. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M, editors. Mammals of Africa: carnivores, pangolins, equids, and rhinoceroses. London (GB): Bloomsbury. p. 412-413.

Egri A, Blaho M, Kriska G, Farkas R, Gyurkovszky M, Akesson S, Horvath G. 2012. Polarotactic tabanids find striped patterns with brightness and/or polarization modulation least attractive: an advantage of zebra stripes. Journal of Experimental Biology. 215(5):736-745. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.065540

Eisenmann V. 1992. Origins, dispersals, and migrations of Equus (Mammalia, Perssodactyla). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris, ser. D. 288:497-500.

Estes R. 1999. The safari companion: a guide to watching African mammals including hoofed mammals, carnivores, and primates. White River Junction (VT): Chelsea Green Publishing Company.

Estes R. 2012. The behavior guide to African mammals: including hoofed mammals, carnivores, primates. Berkley (CA): The University of California Press. p. 235-246.

Gove PB, editor. 1993. Webster's third new international dictionary of the English language, unabridged. Springfield (MA): Merriam Webster.

Grobler JH, Charsley GW. 1978. Host preference of the Yellow-Billed Oxpecker Buphagus africanus in the Rhodes Matopos National-Park, Rhodesia. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 8(4):169-170.

Groves C. 1974. Horses, asses, and zebras in the wild. Hollywood (FL): Ralph Curtis Books.

Groves C. 2013. Family Equidae: asses, zebras. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M, editors. Mammals of Africa: carnivores, pangolins, equids, and rhinoceroses. London (GB): Bloomsbury. p. 410-412.

Grubb P. 1981. Equus burchellii. Mammalian Species. 157:1-9. DOI: 10.2307/3503962

Hack M, Lorenzen E. 2008. Equus quagga [Internet]. Gland (CH): International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Hack M, East R, Rubenstein D. 2002. Status and action plan for the plains zebra (Equus burchellii). In: Moehlman P, editor. Equids, zebras, asses, and horses: status survey and conservation action plan. Gland (CH): International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). p. 43-60.

Harris G, Thirgood S, Hopcraft JGB, Cromsigt J, Berger J. 2009. Global decline in aggregate migrations of large terrestrial mammals. Endangered Species Research. 7(1):55-76. DOI: 10.3354/esr00173

Harley EH, Knight MH, Lardner C, Wooding B, Gregor M. 2009. The quagga project: progress over 20 years of selective breeding. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 39(2):155-163. DOI:

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Jennison G. 1937. Animals for show and pleasure in ancient Rome. Manchester (GB): Manchester University Press.

King J. 1965. A field guide to the reproduction of Grant's zebra and Grevy's zebra. East African Wildlife Journal. 3:99-117.

King SRB, Moehlman PD. 2016. Plains zebra Equus quagga. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019.1; e.T41013A45172424 [species assessed 2016 Jun 20; page accessed 2019 Apr 09]. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T41013A45172424.en.

Kingdon J. 1979. East African mammals: an atlas of evolution in Africa. London (GB): Academic Press. p. 164-179.

Kingdon J. 1997. The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. London (GB): Academic Press.

Kingdon J. 2013. Subgenus Hippotigris. In: Kingdon J, Hoffmann M, editors. Mammals of Africa, vol. 5: carnivores, pangolins, equids, and rhinoceroses. London (GB): Bloomsbury. p. 417-421.

Kisling VN. 2001. Zoo and aquarium history: ancient animal collections to zoological gardens. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.

Klingel H. 1965. Notes on the biology of the plains zebra Equus quagga bohmi Matschie. East African Wildlife Journal. 3:86-88. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.1965.tb00739.x

Klingel H. 1967. Soziale organisation und verhalten freilebender steppenzebras. Zeitschrift Fur Tierpsychologie-Journal of Comparative Ethology. 24:580-624. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.1967.tb00807.x

Klingel H. 1969. Social organization and population ecology of the plains zebra (Equus quagga). Zoologica Africana. 4:249-263.

Klingel H. 2013. Equus quagga, plains zebra (common zebra). In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M, editors. Mammals of Africa: carnivores, pangolins, equids, and rhinoceroses. London (GB): Bloomsbury. p. 428-437.

Lorenzen ED, Arctander P, Siegismund HR. 2008. High variation and very low differentiation in wide ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga): insights from mtDNA and microsatellites. Molecular Ecology. 17(12):2812–2824. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03781.x.


Maddock L. 1979. The "migration" and grazing succession. In: Sinclair A, Norton-Griffiths M, editors. Serengeti: dynamics of an ecosystem. Chicago (IL): The University of Chicago press. p. 104-129.

Mobaek R, Narmo AK, Moe SR. 2005. Termitaria are focal feeding sites for large ungulates in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. Journal of Zoology. 267(1):97-102. DOI: 10.1017/s0952836905007272

Naidoo R, Chase MJ, Beytell P, Du Preez P, Landen K, Stuart-Hill G, Taylor R. 2014. A newly discovered wildlife migration in Namibia and Botswana is the longest in Africa. Oryx. First View: 1-9. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605314000222

Nunn CL, Ezenwa VO, Arnold C, Koenig WD. 2011. Mutualism or parasitism? Using a phylogenetic approach to characterize the oxpecker-ungulate relationship. Evolution. 65(5):1297-1304. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01212.x

Owaga M. 1975. The feeding ecology of wildebeest and zebra in Athi-Kaputei plains. East African Wildlife Journal. 13:375-383.

Orlando L, Metcalf J, Alberdl M, Telles-Antunes M, Bonjean D, Otte M, Martin F, Eisenmann V, Mashkour M, Morello F et al. 2009. Revising the recent evolutionary history of equids using ancient DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106(51):21754-21759. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0903672106

Pedersen C-ET, Albrechtsen A, Etter PD, Johnson EA, Orlando L, Chikhi L, Siegismund HR, Heller R. 2018. A southern African origin and cryptic structure in the highly mobile plains zebra. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2(3):491–498. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0453-7.

Perry N. 1983. Symbiosis: nature in partnership. New York (NY): Blandford. p. 52-54.

Pienaar U de V. 1963. The large mammals of the Kruger National Park; their distribution and present-day status. Koedoe. 6(1):1-37. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v6i1.810

Plantan T, Howitt M, Kotze A, Gaines M. 2013. Feeding preferences of the red-billed oxpecker, Buphagus erythrorhynchus: a parasitic mutualist? African Journal of Ecology. 51(2):325-336. DOI: 10.1111/aje.12042

Prothero DR. 2013. Order Perissodactyla – equids, rhinoceroses, tapirs. In: Kingdon J, Hoffman M., editors. Mammals of Africa, vol. 5: carnivores, pangolins, equids and rhinoceroses. London (GB): Bloomsbury. p. 408-409.

Radcliffe RM, Osofsky SA. 2002. Disease concerns for wild equids. In: Moehlman, editor. Equids: zebras, asses, and horses. Status survey and conservation action plan. Gland (CH): International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. p. 124-153.

Rau, RE. 1974. Revised list of the preserved material of the extinct Cape Colony quagga Equus quagga quagga. Annals of the South African Museum. 65:41-87.

Schilder MBH. 1988. Dominance relationships between adult plains zebra stallions in semi-captivity. Behaviour. 104(3/4):300-319. DOI: 10.1163/156853988x00566

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Smuts GL. 1974a. Age determination in Burchell's zebra (Equus burchellii antiquorum) from the Kruger National Park. Journal of South African Wildlife Management Association. 4(2):103-115.

Smuts G. 1975. Home range size for Burchell's zebra from the Kruger National Park. Koedoe. 18:139-146. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v18i1.918

Smuts GL. 1976b. Reproduction in the zebra mare (Equus burchellii antiquorum) from the Kruger National Park. Koedoe. 19:89-132. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v19i1.1186

Smuts GL. 1976c. Reproduction in the zebra stallion (Equus burchellii antiquorum) from the Kruger National Park. Zoologica Africana. 11(1):207-220.

Steiner C, Ryder O. 2011. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the Perissodactyla. Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society. 163(4):1289-1303. DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00752.x

Struik, D. 2004. The zebra's stripes and other African animal tales. Cape Town (ZA): Random House Struik.

Their T. 2013. AZA yellow program interim breeding and transfer plan, plains zebra (Equus quagga). Saint Louis (MO): Association of Zoos and Aquariums.

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Waring GH. 1983. Horse behavior: the behavioral traits and adaptations of domestic and wild horses, including ponies. Park Ridge (NJ): Noyes Publications.

Weeks P. 2000. Red-billed Oxpeckers: vampires or tickbirds? Behavioral Ecology. 11(2):154-160. doi: 10.1093/beheco/11.2.154

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