Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta)
Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.
Species: Crocuta crocuta - spotted hyena
Body Weight: 40-86 kg (88-190 lb); females often weigh more than males.
Body Length: 144-179 cm (4.7-5.9 ft)
Tail Length: c. 2.5 cm (0.8 ft)
Pelage: Short, light brown, beige, sandy, or ginger hair; spotted with black or brown on the neck, shoulders, back, flanks, rump, legs, and tail base.
|Distribution & Status||Behavior & Ecology|
Range: Sub-Saharan Africa, though historically across Africa and Eurasia.
Habitat: Generalist; semi-desert, savanna and open woodland, dense, dry woodland, and montane regions. Sea level to 4,100 m (13,450 ft).
IUCN Status: Least Concern (2014 assessment)
CITES Appendix: not listed
Population in Wild: 27,000-47,000 individuals; most abundant within the Serengeti ecosystem and Kruger National Park
Locomotion: Run with a loping gate; travel long distance in search of prey. Non-arboreal. Strong swimmers, capable of submerging for up to 12
Activity Cycle: Nocturnal, though not uncommonly active in daylight. Often rest for long periods of time.
Social Groups: Highly social, living in clans of one to several matrilineal lines and immigrant males. These stable units are composed of 8-80 individuals. Clan members often range widely. Cooperatively defend territory, food resources, and the communal den site. Dominance hierarchies govern interactions. Females dominate males, receiving preferential access to food.
Diet: Carnivorous, primarily taking medium to large ungulates; though consuming a wide variety of mammals and other animals. Devour all parts,
Predators: Commonly killed by lions, other spotted hyena, and humans.
|Reproduction & Development||Species Highlights|
Sexual Maturity: 2-3 yrs. Males first reproduce c. 3-4 yrs, females 2-5 yrs.
Gestation: 98-111 days, 110 commonly reported.
Litter Size: 1-2 typically, triplets rare.
Birth Weight: c. 1.5 kg (3.3 lb).
Age at Weaning: c. 1 year.
Longevity: In managed care, to 40 yrs; mean c. 20 yrs.
© 2014-2019 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. Population estimates and IUCN Status updated Apr 2019.
How to cite: Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta) Fact Sheet. c2014-2019. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance; [accessed YYYY Mon DD]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ spottedhyena.
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2014 Sep 15)
Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org.