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White-fronted Bee-eater (Merops bullockoides) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


BirdLife International 2009. White-fronted Bee-eater. Species Factsheet: Merops bullockoides.

BirdLife International. 2012. Merops bullockoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22683684A40574846. <>. [accessed 11 November 2016].

BirdLife International. 2016. Merops bullockoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018 (v2017-3): e.T22683684A92995705. <>. [accessed 20 June 2018].

Casas-Crivillé and F. Valera. The European bee-eater (Merops apiaster) as an ecosystem engineer in arid environments. Journal of Arid Environments. 60(2):227-238.

Clarke, J., D. Ksepka, A. Smith, M. Norell 2009. Combined phylogenetic analysis of a new North American fossil species confirms widespread Eocene distribution for stem rollers (Aves, Coracii). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 157 (3) 586-611.

del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal (eds) 1992. Ostrich to Ducks. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 1 p 696.

_________________________________ 2001. Family Meropidae (bee-eaters). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 6. Mousebirds to hornbills. barcelona: Lynx Edicions. p. 286-325.

Emlen, S. 1981. Altruism, kinship, and reciprocity in the white-fronted bee-eater. R. Alexander and D. Tinkle (eds). In: Natural Selection and Social Behavior: Recent Research and New Theory. Chiron Press. New York pp. 245-281.

Emlen, S. 1990. The white-fronted bee-eater: helping in a colonially nesting species. In: Stacey, P. and W. Koenig (Eds.) Cooperative breeding in birds: long-term studies of ecology and behavior. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp 305-339.

Emlen, S. 1991. Evolution of cooperative breeding in birds and mammals. In: J. Krebs. and N. Davies (editors). Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Oxford. UK pp. 301-337.

Emlen, S. and P. Wrege 1988. The role of kinship in helping decisions among white-fronted bee-eaters. Behavior Ecology Sociobiology 23:305-315.

Emlen, S., and P. Wrege. 1991. Breeding Biology of White-fronted Bee-eaters at Nakuru Kenya: The Influence of Helpers on Breeder Fitness." Journal of Animal Ecology 60: 309–326.

Emlen, S., P. Wrege, N. Demong, R. Hegner 1991. Flexible growth rates in nestling White-fronted Bee eaters: a possible adaptation to short-term food shortage. The Condor, 93:591-597.

Fry, C. 1969. The evolution and systematics of bee-eaters (Meropidae). IBIS 111:557-592.

____. 1984. The Bee-eaters. Buteo Books, Vermillion, South Dakota.

____. 2001. Family Meropidae (Bee-Eaters) In: del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J.Sargatal (Eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 6. Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Edicions. Barcelona. pp. 286-341.

Fry, C.and K. Fry. 1992. Kingfishers, Bee-eaters and Rollers: A Handbook. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Hackett, S., R. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. Bowie, E. Braun, M. Braun, et al 2008. A phylogenetic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320(5884):1763-1768.

Hegner, R., S. Emlen, N. Demong 1982. Spatial organization of the White-fronted Bee-eater. Nature 298:264-6.

Higes, M., R. Martin-Hernández, E. Garrido-Bailón, C. Botias, P. Garcia-Palencia, A. Meana 2008. Regurgitated pellets of Merops apiaster as fomites of infective Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) spores. Environmental Microbiology 10(5):1374-9.

ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) 2010. Merops. Linnaeus, 1758. dowloaded March 2010.

IUCN 2008. Merops nubicus. Redlist of Threatened Species.

Lessells C. 1990. Helping at the nest in European bee-eaters: who helps and why, pp. 357-368. In: Blondel J. et al. (Eds). Population Biology of Passerine Birds, An Integrated Approach. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Marks, B., J. Weckstein, R. Moyle 2007. Molecular phylogenetics of the bee-eaters (Aves: Meropidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 45(1):23-32.

Price, R. and K. Emerson 1977. The Genus Meromenopon (Mallophaga: Menoponidae) from the Coraciiformes (Aves). Journal of the Kansas entomological Society. 50(2):215-221.

Ryan, P. 2009. Showtime: Carmine Bee-eaters. African-Birds and Birding. 14(4):39-45.

Sibley, C. and B.. Monroe . Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.

Sibley, C. and J.E. Ahlquist 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

UNEP. 2020. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2020 Dec 09].

Watve, M., J. Thakar, A. Kale, S. Putambekar, I Shaikh, K. Vaze, M. Jog, S. Paranjape 2002. Bee-eaters (Merops orientalis) respond to what a predator can see. Animals Cognition 2002 5(4):253-9.

Wrege, P. and Stephen T. Emlen. 1991. Breeding Seasonality and Reproductive Success of White-fronted Bee-eaters in Kenya. The Auk 108: 673–687.

Wrege, P. and S. Emlen 1994. Family structure influences mate choice in white-fronted bee-eaters. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobioogy 35(3):185-191.

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