(Wrege & Emlen 1994)
Choose one of the two rainy seasons each year for breeding
Females consider the family structure of a potential mate when choosing a partner.
Courtship interactions occur at the roosting colony and on the feeding territory.
Courtship is lengthy - often 6 to 8 weeks
At the start of courtship both birds are excluded by their families; as they form a pair-bond, the female usually becomes accepted into the male's family group.
After mating, males spend most of day guarding female from other males.
Monogamous, cooperative breeders, living in colonies. (Emlen 1990)
Breeding success in this species strongly influenced by family structure. (Wrege & Emlen 1994)
Females typically leave their birth group to join the family of the male (patrilocal)
Many individuals of both sexes play a role as a helper at the nest. (Emlen 1990, 1991))
Nesting (Emlen 1990) (Fry 1984, 1992)
Eggs (Fry 1984)
In the wild
(Fry 1984) (Wrege & Emlen 1991)
Aside from flooding and cliff collapse deaths, 48% of nestlings die of starvation.
Predation on eggs and young only a minor cause of mortality
Collapse of undercut cliff faces along a river are common; often considerable or total loss of colony's eggs and young.
Cliff faces may be flooded with rising river waters, resulting in a loss of eggs and young.