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North American Ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


American Association of Zoo and Aquaria (AZA). 2012. North American regional studbook for the ringtail and cacomistle (Bassariscus astutus and Bassariscus sumichrasti), 5th Ed. Thompson D. editor. American Association of Zoo and Aquaria.

AZA. 2023. Species Survival Statistics [data table report]. Chicago (IL): Lincoln Park Zoo/AZA Population Management Center; [accessed 2023 Apr 18].

Barja I, List R. 2006. Faecal marking behaviour in ringtails (Bassariscus astutus) during the non-breeding period: Spatial characteristics of latrines and single faeces. Chemoecology. 16: 219–222.

Belluomini, L. 1983. Ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) distribution and abundance in the Central Valley of California. Unpublished M.S. thesis, California State University, Sacramento, CA. 42 pp.

Decker DM, Wozencraft WC. 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of Recent Procylonid Genera. Journal of Mammalogy. 71: 42-55

Glatston AR. 1994. The Red Panda, Olingos, Coatis, Raccoons, and their Relatives. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Procyonids and Ailurids. IUCN/SSC Mustelid, Viverrid and Procyonid Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Gotch AF. 1995. Latin names explained: a guide to the scientific classification of reptiles, birds and mammals. London (England): Blandford.

Grinnell J, Dixon J, Linsdale J. 1937. Fur-bearing Mammals of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Helgen KM, Pinto M, Kays R, Helgen L, Tsuchiya M, Quinn A, Wilson D, Maldonado J. 2013. Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon), with description of new species, the Olinguito. ZooKeys. 324:1-83.

Hoffmeister DF. 1986. Mammals of Arizona. University of Arizona Press.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System database (ITIS). [cited Dec 2013]. Bassariscus astutus (Lichtenstein, 1830). Available from:

Kuban J, Schwartz G. 1985. Nectar as a diet of the ring-tailed cat. Southwestern Naturalist 30: 311–312.

Lacy MK. 1983. Home range size, intraspecific spacing, and habitat preference of ringtails (Bassariscus astutus) in a riparian forest in California. Unpublished M.S. thesis, California State University, Sacramento, CA. 64 pp.

Nowak R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Poglayen-Neuwall I. 1990. Procyonids. 1990. In: Grzimek B, ed. Grzimek's encyclopedia of mammals, Vol 5. New York (New York): McGraw-Hill.

Poglayen-Neuwall I, Toweill DE. 1988. Bassariscus astutus. Mammalian Species 327:1–8.

Reid TR, Helgen K. 2008. Bassariscus astutus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 03 December 2013.

Reid F, Schipper J, Timm R. 2016. Ringtail Bassariscus astutus. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2018.2; e.T41680A45215881 (species assessed 2015 Mar 01; page accessed 2019 Mar 19). doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T41680A45215881.en.

Richardson WB. 1942. Ring-tailed cats (Bassariscus astutus): their growth and development. Journal of Mammalogy. 23(1): 17-26.

Taylor WP. 1954. Food Habits and Notes on Life History of Ring-tailed Cat in Texas. Journal of Mammalogy, 35(1): 55-63

Toweill D, Teer J. 1977. Food habits of ringtails in the Edwards Plateau of Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 58:660–663.

Trapp GR. 1972. Some anatomical and behavioral adaptations of ringtails, Bassariscus astutus. Journal of Mammalogy 53:549–557.

Trapp GR. 1978. Comparative behavioral ecology of the ringtail and gray fox in southwestern Utah. Carnivore 1(2):3–32.

UNEP. 2019. Species+ [online database]. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK]. [accessed 2019 Oct 08].

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. 2019. ECOS: Environmental Conservation Online System [Internet database/portal]. Washington D.C.: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service [accessed 2019 Oct 08].

Willey RB, Richards RE. 1981. Vocalizations of the ringtail (Bassariscus astutus). Southwestern Naturalist. 26(1):23-30.

Wilson ED, Cole RF. 2000. Common names of mammals of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Wozencraft CW. 2005. Order Carnivora. In Mammal Species of the World. Volume 1, 3rd Edition. Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp 622-625.

Wyatt DT. 1993. Home range size, habitat use, and food habits of ringtails (Bassariscus astutus) in Central Valley riparian forest, Sutter Co., California. Unpublished M.S. thesis, California State University, Sacramento, CA. 100 pp.

Zeveloff SI. 2002. Raccoons. London (England): Smithsonian Institution Press. pp 33-37.

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