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Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet, 2009   Tags: america, conservation, endangered, fact sheet, herbivore, horn, mammal, mexico, pronghorn, ruminant, san diego zoo, sdzg, sonora, wildlife  

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)
Last Updated: Jan 27, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet, 2009

American Pronghorn, side view

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.

TaxonomyPhysical Characteristics

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Artiodactyla* (or Cetartiodactyla) (even-toed hoofed animals: includes pigs, sheep goats, cattle, deer)

Family: Antilocapridae

Genus: Antilocapra

Species: Antilocapra americana - pronghorn

Subspecies: A. a. americana - American pronghorn
Subspecies: A. a. mexicana - Sonoran pronghorn
Subspecies: A. a. peninsularis - Baja California pronghorn

Body Weight
Male: 42-59 kg (92-129 lb)
Female: 40-50 kg (87-111 lb)

Body Length
Male: 133.8-149.4 cm (52.7-58.8 in)
Female: 128.3-148.6 cm (50.5-58.5 in)

Tail Length
Male: 8.3-13.5 cm (3.3-5.3 in)
Female: 8.6-12.7 cm (3.4-5 in)

Upper body and outside of legs light tan or reddish tan.
White on chest, belly, sides, and inner legs. Large white rump patch.

Distribution & StatusBehavior & Ecology

Parts of the United States, Canada, and Mexico

Shrublands, grasslands, and temperate desert; treeless, flat terrain

IUCN Status
Least Concern

CITES Appendix
Appendix I (population in Mexico only)

Other Designations
Two subspecies listed as Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

Population in Wild
In 2016, an estimated 1 million individuals (half in Wyoming); populations fluctuate with severity of droughts and winters

Running, leaping, swimming. Extremely fast.

Activity Cycle
Diurnal. Most active at dawn and dusk. Sleep often, for short periods.

Social Groups
Herd composition changes frequently. In fall and winter, smaller bands come together to form a large herd (as many as 1,000 individiuals).

Herbivores. Shrubs, grasses, forbs, cacti.

Wolves, foxes, coyotes, bobcats, golden eagles, and humans

Reproduction & DevelopmentSpecies Highlights

Sexual Maturity
Females: 16-17 months
Males: 12 months (breed successfully from 3-4 years)

245-255 days

Litter Size
Usually two fawns; sometimes one fawn

Birth Weight
3.2-4.1 kg (7-9 lb)

Age at Weaning
4-5 months old

7-10 years

Feature Facts

  • Only survival member of the North American ungulate family Antilocapridae
  • Second fastest land mammal; can reach speeds of 86 kph (53 mph)
  • Adapted for long-distance running and endurance
  • Large eyes—can see movement over 4 miles away; long eyelashes provide protection from the sun
  • Once 35 million or more pronghorn in North America; populations reduced by 99% during latter half of the 19th century
  • Today, healthy populations in the U.S. and Canada

About This Fact Sheet

© 2009 San Diego Zoo Global. Minor update to Population & Conservation 2017.

How to cite: Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet, 2009. c2009-2017. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd].
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Sep 10)

Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to

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