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Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet: Summary

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet

side view of an American Pronghorn

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.


Taxonomy Physical Characteristics

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Mammalia

Order: Artiodactyla* (or Cetartiodactyla) (even-toed hoofed animals: includes pigs, sheep goats, cattle, deer)

Family: Antilocapridae

Genus: Antilocapra

Species: Antilocapra americana - pronghorn

Subspecies: A. a. americana - American pronghorn
Subspecies: A. a. mexicana - Sonoran pronghorn
Subspecies: A. a. peninsularis - Baja California pronghorn

Body Weight
Male: 42-59 kg (93-130 lb)
Female: 40-50 kg (88-110 lb)

Body Length
Male: 133.8-149.4 cm (52.7-58.8 in)
Female: 128.3-148.6 cm (50.5-58.5 in)

Tail Length
Male: 8.3-13.5 cm (3.3-5.3 in)
Female: 8.6-12.7 cm (3.4-5 in)

Upper body and outside of legs light tan or reddish tan.
White on chest, belly, sides, and inner legs. Large white rump patch.

Distribution & Status Behavior & Ecology

Parts of the United States, Canada, and Mexico

Shrublands, grasslands, and temperate desert; treeless, flat terrain

IUCN Status
Least Concern (2016 assessment) (IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group 2016)

CITES Appendix
Appendix I; only population in Mexico (UNEP 2019)

Other Designations
Two subspecies listed as Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

Population in Wild
An estimated 1 million individuals (half in Wyoming). Populations fluctuate with severity of droughts and winters.

Running, leaping, swimming. Extremely fast.

Activity Cycle
Diurnal. Most active at dawn and dusk. Sleep often, for short periods.

Social Groups
Herd composition changes frequently. In fall and winter, smaller bands come together to form a large herd (as many as 1,000 individiuals).

Herbivores. Shrubs, grasses, forbs, cacti.

Wolves, foxes, coyotes, bobcats, golden eagles, and humans

Reproduction & Development Species Highlights

Sexual Maturity
Females: 16-17 months
Males: 12 months (breed successfully from 3-4 years)

245-255 days

Litter Size
Usually two fawns; sometimes one fawn

Birth Weight
3.2-4.1 kg (7-9 lb)

Age at Weaning
4-5 months old

Typical Life Expectancy
Wild populations: about 9 years, on average (Montana)

Feature Facts

  • Second fastest land mammal; can reach speeds of 86 kph (53 mph)
  • Adapted for long-distance running and endurance
  • Large eyes—can see movement over 4 miles away; long eyelashes provide protection from the sun
  • Only surviving member of the North American ungulate family Antilocapridae
  • Once 35 million or more pronghorn in North America; populations reduced by 99% during latter half of the 19th century
  • Today, healthy populations in the U.S. and Canada

About This Fact Sheet

© 2009 San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. Minor updates to Population & Conservation 2017, 2018.


How to cite: Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet. c2009-2018. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. pronghorn
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Sep 10)


Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to

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