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Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet
Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)
Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Global. All rights reserved.
Order: Artiodactyla* (or Cetartiodactyla) (even-toed hoofed animals: includes pigs, sheep goats, cattle, deer)
Species: Antilocapra americana - pronghorn
Subspecies: A. a. americana - American pronghorn
Subspecies: A. a. mexicana - Sonoran pronghorn
Subspecies: A. a. peninsularis - Baja California pronghorn
Male: 42-59 kg (93-130 lb)
Female: 40-50 kg (88-110 lb)
Male: 133.8-149.4 cm (52.7-58.8 in)
Female: 128.3-148.6 cm (50.5-58.5 in)
Male: 8.3-13.5 cm (3.3-5.3 in)
Female: 8.6-12.7 cm (3.4-5 in)
Upper body and outside of legs light tan or reddish tan.
White on chest, belly, sides, and inner legs. Large white rump patch.
|Distribution & Status
||Behavior & Ecology
Parts of the United States, Canada, and Mexico
Shrublands, grasslands, and temperate desert; treeless, flat terrain
Least Concern (2016 assessment) (IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group 2016)
Appendix I (UNEP 2019)(population in Mexico only)
Two subspecies listed as Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act
Population in Wild
An estimated 1 million individuals (half in Wyoming). Populations fluctuate with severity of droughts and winters.
Running, leaping, swimming. Extremely fast.
Diurnal. Most active at dawn and dusk. Sleep often, for short periods.
Herd composition changes frequently. In fall and winter, smaller bands come together to form a large herd (as many as 1,000 individiuals).
Herbivores. Shrubs, grasses, forbs, cacti.
Wolves, foxes, coyotes, bobcats, golden eagles, and humans
|Reproduction & Development
Females: 16-17 months
Males: 12 months (breed successfully from 3-4 years)
Usually two fawns; sometimes one fawn
3.2-4.1 kg (7-9 lb)
Age at Weaning
4-5 months old
- Second fastest land mammal; can reach speeds of 86 kph (53 mph)
- Adapted for long-distance running and endurance
- Large eyes—can see movement over 4 miles away; long eyelashes provide protection from the sun
- Only surviving member of the North American ungulate family Antilocapridae
- Once 35 million or more pronghorn in North America; populations reduced by 99% during latter half of the 19th century
- Today, healthy populations in the U.S. and Canada
About This Fact Sheet
© 2009 San Diego Zoo Global. Minor updates to Population & Conservation 2017, 2018.
How to cite: Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet. c2009-2018. San Diego (CA): San Diego Zoo Global; [accessed YYYY Mmm dd]. http://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/ pronghorn
(note: replace YYYY Mmm dd with date accessed, e.g., 2015 Sep 10)
Disclaimer: Although San Diego Zoo Global makes every attempt to provide accurate information, some of the facts provided may become outdated or replaced by new research findings. Questions and comments may be addressed to email@example.com.