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Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) Fact Sheet: Distribution & Habitat

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)


  • Historical
    • South-central Canada south to the high plains north of Mexico City
    • Mississippi River and Gulf Coast of Texas west to the Pacific Ocean
  • Current
    • U.S.: southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, Montana, and western North Dakota, south to Arizona and western Texas
    • Canada: southern Alberta and Saskatchewan
    • Mexico: northern Mexico
  • Distribution has been reduced and fragmented by human development
    • Seasonal migration and foraging prevented by fencing of rangelands and ranches
    • Illegal hunting has reduced populations in Mexico


  • Found in shrub lands, Mediterranean-type shrubby vegetation, grassland, temperate desert
    • Deserts support less than 1 percent of the population
  • Associated most frequently with treeless, flat terrain, most numerous in short-grass prairies
  • Next most important habitat is steppe, preferably with vegetation ranging 5 to 30 in (13 to 76 cm) in height
  • Herds range from near sea level to 11,000 ft (3,353 m) above sea level, but greatest concentrations are found 3,000 to 8,000 ft (914 to 2,438 m) above sea level

Pronghorn Distribution

Pronghorn distribution map

Pronghorn are found in Canada, the United States, and northern Mexico.

Adapted from

Page Citations

Byers (1997)
O’Gara & Yoakum (2004)

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