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African and Asian Lions (Panthera leo) Fact Sheet: Bibliography & Resources


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Abell J, Kirzinger MWB, Gordon Y, Kirk J, Kokeŝ R, Lynas K, Mandinyenya B, Youldon D. 2013. A social network analysis of social cohesion in a constructed pride: implications for ex situ reintroduction of the African lion (Panthera leo). PloS One. 8(12):e82541-e82541.

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Andersen K, Vulpius T. 1999. Urinary volatile constituents of the lion, Panthera leo. Chemical Senses. 24(2):179-189.

Arsznov BM, Sakai ST. 2012. Pride diaries: sex, brain size and sociality in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor). Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 79(4):275-289.

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Barnett R, Yamaguchi N, Barnes I, Cooper A. 2006. The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 273(1598):2119-2125.

Barnett R, Yamaguchi N, Shapiro B, Ho SY, Barnes I, Sabin R, Werdelin L, Cuisin J, Larson G. 2014. Revealing the maternal demographic history of Panthera leo using ancient DNA and a spatially explicit genealogical analysis. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14(1):1-11.

Bauer H, Chapron G, Nowell K, Henschel P, Funston P, Hunter LT, Macdonald DW, Packer C. 2015. Lion (Panthera leo) populations are declining rapidly across Africa, except in intensively managed areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112(48):14894-14899.

Bauer H, Packer C, Funston PF, Henschel P, Nowell K. 2016. Panthera leo. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019-1; e.T15951A97162455 [species assessed 2014 Jun 20; page accessed 2019 Apr 16].

Bertola LD, Jongbloed H, van der Gaag KJ, de Knijff P, Yamaguchi N, Hooghiemstra H, Bauer H, Henschel P, White PA, Driscoll CA et al. 2016. Phylogeographic patterns in Africa and high resolution delineation of genetic clades in the lion (Panthera leo). Scientific Reports. 6:30807.

Bertola LD, Tensen L, van Hooft P, White PA, Driscoll CA, Henschel P, Caragiulo A, Dias-Freedman I, Sogbohossou EA, Tumenta PN et al. 2015. Autosomal and mtDNA markers affirm the distinctiveness of lions in West and Central Africa. PloS One. 10(10):e0137975.

Bertola LD, van Hooft WF, Vrieling K, Uit de Weerd DR, York DS, Bauer H, Prins HHT, Funston PJ, Udo de Haes HA, Leirs H et al. 2011. Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa. Journal of Biogeography. 38(7):1356-1367.

Bjork KE, Averbeck GA, Stromberg BE. 2000. Parasites and parasite stages of free-ranging wild lions (Panthera leo) of northern Tanzania. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 31(1):56-61.[0056:PAPSOF]2.0.CO;2

Breitenmoser, U., Mallon, D.P., Ahmad Khan, J. and Driscoll, C. 2008. Panthera leo ssp. persica. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019.1; e.T15952A5327221 [species assessed 2008 Jun 30; page accessed 2019 Apr 16]. 

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Celesia GG, Townsend Peterson A, Kerbis Peterhans JC, Gnoske TP. 2009. Climate and landscape correlates of African lion (Panthera leo) demography. African Journal of Ecology. 48(1):58-71.

Chassin PS, Taylor CR, Heglund NC, Seeherman HJ. 1976. Locomotion in lions: energetic cost and maximum aerobic capacity. Physiological Zoology. 49(1):1-10.

Chauvenet ALM, Durant SM, Hilborn R, Pettorelli N. 2011. Unintended consequences of conservation actions: managing disease in complex ecosystems. PloS One. 6(12):e28671.

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Christiansen P, Harris JM. 2009. Craniomandibular morphology and phylogenetic affinities of Panthera atrox: implications for the evolution and paleobiology of the lion lineage. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29(3):934-945.

Cooper S. 1991. Optimal hunting group size: the need for lions to defend their kills against loss to spotted hyaenas. African Journal of Ecology. 29(2):130-136.

Craigie ID, Baillie JEM, Balmford A, Carbone C, Collen B, Green RE, Hutton JM. 2010. Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas. Biological Conservation. 143(9):2221-2228.

Davidson Z, Valeix M, Van Kesteren F, Loveridge AJ, Hunt JE, Murindagomo F, Macdonald DW. 2013. Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna. PloS One. 8(2):e55182.

Davis BW, Li G, Murphy WJ. 2010. Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56:64-76.

De Waal HO, Osthoff G, Hugo A, Myburgh J, Botes P. 2004. The composition of African lion (Panthera leo) milk collected a few days postpartum. Mammalian Biology. 69(6):375-383.

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Dolrenry S, Stenglein J, Hazzah L, Lutz RS, Frank L. 2014. A metapopulation approach to African lion (Panthera leo) conservation. PloS One. 9(2):e88081-e88081.

Eloff F. 1984. Food ecology of the Kalahari lion Panthera leo vernayi. Koedoe. 27(2):249-258.

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Ferreira SM, Funston PJ. 2010. Estimating lion population variables: prey and disease effects in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Wildlife Research. 37(3):194-206.

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Funston P, Mills M, Biggs H, Richardson P. 1998. Hunting by male lions: ecological influences and socioecological implications. Animal Behaviour. 56(6):1333-1345.

Funston PJ, Mills MGL, Biggs HC. 2001. Factors affecting the hunting success of male and female lions in the Kruger National Park. Journal of Zoology. 253(4):419-431.

Funston PJ, Mills MGL, Richardson PRK, Van Jaarsveld AS. 2003. Reduced dispersal and opportunistic territory acquisition in male lions (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoology. 259(2):131-142.

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Hayward MW, Kerley GI. 2005. Prey preferences of the lion (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoology. 267(03):309-322.

Hazzah L, Borgerhoff Mulder M, Frank L. 2009. Lions and warriors: Social factors underlying declining African lion populations and the effect of incentive-based management in Kenya. Biological Conservation. 142(11): 2428-2437.

Hazzah L, Dolrenry S, Naughton L, Edwards CTT, Mwebi O, Kearney F, Frank L. 2014. Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya. Conservation Biology. 28(3):851-860.

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Henschel P., Bauer H., Sogbohoussou E., and Nowell K. 2015. Panthera leo West Africa subpopulation. The IUCN red list of threatened species [Internet]. Version 2019-1; e.T68933833A54067639.

Henschel P, Coad L, Burton C, Chataigner B, Dunn A, MacDonald D, Saidu Y, Hunter LTB. 2014. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered. PloS One. 9(1):e83500.

Hunter LTB, Pretorius K, Carlisle LC, Rickelton M, Walker C, Slotow R, Skinner JD. 2007. Restoring lions Panthera leo to northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: short-term biological and technical success but equivocal long-term conservation. Oryx. 41(02):196-204.

Huxley E. 1974. Livingstone and his African journeys. New York: Saturday Review Press.

Ikanda D, Packer C. 2008. Ritual vs. retaliatory killing of African lions in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. Endangered Species Research. 6(1):67-74.

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Khan J A., 1995. Conservation and management of Gir Lion Sanctury and National Park, Gujarat, India.  Biological Conservation. 73(3):183-188.

Kilian P, Bothma JDP. 2003. Notes on the social dynamics and behaviour of reintroduced lions in the Welgevonden Private Game Reserve. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. 33(2):119-124.

Kitchener AC, Breitemoser-Würsten Ch, Eizirik E, Gentry A, Werdelin L, Wilting A, Wamaguchi N, Abramov A, Christiansen P, Driscoll C, et al. 2017. A revised taxonomy of the Felidae. The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group. Cat News Spec. Issue 11, 80 pages.

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Kissui BM. 2008. Livestock predation by lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, and their vulnerability to retaliatory killing in the Maasai steppe, Tanzania. Animal Conservation. 11(5):422-432.

Kissui BM, Packer C. 2004. Top–down population regulation of a top predator: lions in the Ngorongoro Crater. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 271(1550):1867-1874.

Kushnir H, Leitner H, Ikanda D, Packer C. 2010. Human and ecological risk factors for unprovoked lion attacks on humans in southeastern Tanzania. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 15(5):315-331.

Kushnir H, Weisberg S, Olson E, Juntunen T, Ikanda D, Packer C. 2014. Using landscape characteristics to predict risk of lion attacks on humans in south-eastern Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology. 52(4):524-532.

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Lindsey PA, Balme GA, Booth VR, Midlane N. 2012. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land. PloS One. 7(1):e29332.

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Maclennan SD, Groom RJ, Macdonald DW, Frank LG. 2009. Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biological Conservation. 142(11):2419-2427.

Matoba T, Kutsukake N, Hasegawa T. 2013. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo. PloS One. 8(9):1-11.

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Mosser A, Packer C. 2009. Group territoriality and the benefits of sociality in the African lion, Panthera leo. Animal Behaviour. 78(2):359-370.

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Additional Web Resources

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Lion by Deidre Jackson (2010)

A bold, fascinating read that brings together historical, biographical, cultural, and conservation perspectives on lions. Eloquently written and researched. Incredible collection of art history photographs and literary references.

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Tender Moment

Male lion licking a female lion

Male lion licks female on top of her head.

Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.

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