Signaling reproductive receptivity
Effects of social structure on paternity
Intruder males kill cubs to induce estrus in females
For a detailed visual and descriptive guide, see Karyl L. Whitman’s and Craig Packer’s A Hunter’s Guide to Aging Lions in Eastern and Southern Africa.
Infants: birth to 1 year
Large Cubs: 1-2 years
Subadults: 2-4 years
Young Adults: 4-6 years
Adulthood: 6 years and older
Causes of mortality (Schaller 1972)
Lion cubs with their mother, Oshana, leave their nursery den—for the first time—to explore and play.
Oshana gave birth to these cubs at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park on June 22, 2014.
Image credit: © San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance. All rights reserved.